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161 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Radiogrpahy is a NDI testing method wherein a source of xray or gamma rays are utilized to do what?
utilized to indicate the subsurface condition or opque materials.
The history of radiography starts with who?
Wilhelm roentagen 1985
The history of radiography application?
Medical in 1920's, rocket fuels, used by civilians industry in 1930 for quality control, A/C related Maint, Commercial airlines in 1950, and armed services in 1958.
Advantages of radiography?
increased safety of equipment

provides permanent records

part requires little or no preparation

minimal disassembly

provides view of internal conditions
Disadvantages of radiography?
Radiation exposure hazard

extreme degree of skill required

high cost

defect must be properly orientaed

intensive training required
the atom can be viewd as containing a positivly charged nucleus and one or more ned charged electron which are arranged in a circular or ellipticals path around the nucleus?
Atomic structure
K shells are identified by the letters?
The closest shell to the nucleus and has the lowest level?
The K shell
How are eletrons held in the electron shell?
kinetic energy and centrufugal force
How are electrons arrange theoreticlly?
spin on their axis, orbit nucleus, have specific energy, momentum, weight and tracks,
The approximate total mass of the nucleus?
Atomic weight(A)
Number of protons present in a stable atom?
Atomic number(Z)
The process of completely removing a electron from an atom?
A scale that compares X-rays to other electromagnetic waves sush as infrared, ultraviolet, RF in respect to energy and wavelength?
Electromagnetic spectrum
Distance on a wave from one point to the next corresponding point?
unit of measurement of wavelength is?
one angstrom is equal to?
10 to -8 or .00000001 cm
number of waves that pass a given point in a given amount of time?
X-rays and Gamma rays range from?
.01-1000 angstom
Three basic requirements for production of X-rays?
Source of electrons, acceleration of electrons, and sudden stop
How are photons of energy produced?
When a high velocity electron strikes a material and interacts with its atomic structure.
Electrons not producing X-rays are converted to what?
Heat is 97% and 30% are x-rays.
X-ray is a photon or a small bundle of energy also know as?
What are two forms of interaction?
Characteristic and continous
What form has electron-electron interaction?
Energy emitted is dependent on the velocity of the electron and the energy level of the electron it struck what form is this?
Low energy X-rays commonly produced below 100 KV?
Charateristic interaction
Interaction of a traveling electron with a nuclear field?
nuclear field slows the electron and the energy loss is converted to X-ray photons?
normally occurs above 100kv
electron may continue to travel and interact and high energy x-rays are produced?
Due to different interactions and different wavelengths are produced means x-ray beams are?
Single wavelength on electron shell interacts only?
What two major parts dues the xray tube head consist of?
Anode and cathode
What is the cathode filament made of and what does it do?
Tugstun and it is the source of electrons.
The freeing of electrons by applying head to a material cause a cloud of electrons to build up?
Thermalionic immissions
Surrounds filament and directs electrons to target area and sets up negetive field allowing electrons to pass through weakest area of the field?
focusing cup
made of copper with tungsten target embedded?
what angle does the target sit at?
15-22 degrees
Variation in radiation intensity result due to what?
target angle
What is known as the heel effect?
variation in radiation intensity due to the target angle
Why is tugnsten used for tube head?
high atomic number

High melting point 6098 degrees

high thermal conductivity

Low vapor pressure
Why are channels cut into the anode?
to alow coolant to flow and keep anode cool
anode and catode are enclosed in what?
glass envelope vacuum sealed
why are the anode and cathod in a vacuum sealed envelope?
provides free path for electrons, so they will not collide with air particals, and it prevents oxidation and burning
area struck by electrons?
focal spot
the actual focal spot is what?
the area struck by electrons
area of photon emission from target?
Effective focal spot
the greater the potential of a unit the larger the focal spot size which results in what?
more effective emissions
Definition of detail of a radiograph is controled by what?
focal spot
Beam spread is affected by what?
Distance from source and focal spot size
Actual beam spread size increases directly with what>
distance from the source to the film
The window on the tube head is constructed of what?
beryllium atomic number 4 it has low inherent filtration
measurmet of current applied to the cathode?
what controls the quantity of x rays produced?
What is used in proportion with time to identify output?
to increase intensity of radiation what should you do?
increase the mA
mA =
tube current
Amount of Ma cause what to happen?
filament to heat and heat frees electrons(thermalionic emissions
Amount of electrons freed is proportional to what?
mA applied
Current applied to the anode side?
kV or kilovoltage
one kV equals?
1000 watts
What controls the quality of X-ray beam?
What does kV do?
Creates a difference in potential causing electrons to speed across the vacuum and strike target
Higher kV causes greter speed thus more energy this results in what?
Shorter wavelength z rays and thus more penetration which produces more scattering
Interaction of primary beam results in what?
photon energy interaction with object it strikes
when a photon strikes an object what three different ways can it interact?
Be absorbed, scatter or penetrate
What are three types of X-ray matter interaction?
photoelectric absorbtion, compton effect, and pair production.
in what type of interaction is a photon absorbed by the electron?
durning what type of interaction is energy released as very low energy
Secondary radiation usually occurs below 100 kv in what mode?
What happens to the photon during the comton effect?
part of the photo energy is absorbed by the electron
during what type of interaction do photons continue to trave at lower energy levels?
compton effect
during the compton effect the elctron emits absorbed energy as what?
Secondary radiation
Compton effect usally occures when?
above 100kV
in what process is most scatter and secondary radiation produces?
compton effect
interaction of a photon and nuclear field usually occures above 1.02 MEV what type is this?
pair production
what occurs during pair production?
splits the photon of equal energies into an electron and positron
Primary radiation that has been scattered onto film as it enterd an opening in the specimen?
refective scatter radiation
primary radiation that has been redirected as it strikes or passes through and object?
scatter radiation
what is undercut sactter radiation?
primary radiation that enterd and object and may scatter within and emerge onto the film
primary radiation that has penetrated through an object or cassette and has been redirected to an angle greater than 90 degrees from the original angle to the backside of the film
back scatter radiation
what are some of the tools used to eliminate sactter
Diaphragm, lead cone masking and greater SFD?
what is SFD?
sorce to fil distance.
In what year did the military start using radiation
What is made of molybdenum and what is its atomic number?
the focusing cup
effective focal spot does what?
Controls the quality
actual focal spot does what?
controls the quantity
What controls the speed of electrons?
What are the two types of equipment used for radiography?
magnafluz (a/e 99d-1) 150 KVP

lorad 160 KVP
The A/E 99D-1 has how many components to it?

How much do they weight?
The master control unit 52lbs

Tude head 29 lbs

cooler unit 67 lbs
What is the continuous operating time for the magnaflux unit?
0-99.9 min
What is the kV output rages for the magnaflux unit?
0-150 kV in 1 kV increments and starts working at 20 kV
What is the mA output range of the magnafluz unit?
1-7 mA in .1 increments
What is the effective focal spot size of the A/E 99d-1?
1.5 mm sq
What unit has a 40 degree cone of emission?
The thermal cut out switch for the A/E 99D-1 disables the system when it reaches what temp?
200 dgrees
The tube heads SF6 gas is charged to what PSI and has a pressure relief valve set at what?
charged to 50 psi and pressure relief valve at 70 psi
If the system pressure of the 150 KVP unit drops below 20 psi what happens?
disables system
What is the capacity of the cooler unit and how much hose is avalible?
5 qts and 50 ft of 3/8 hose
What is the operating pressure of the cooler unit?
50-80 PSI
What are the major components of the lorad 160 KVP?

how much do they weight?
master control 35 lbs

tube head 33 lbs
What is the kV out put range of the Lorad?
0-160 in 1 kV increments. Starts working at 5kV
When does the lorad tube head start working?
What is the mA out put range of the lorad unit?
.0-150 in .1 increments
the lorad has a continuous operating time of what?
0-99 min 59 sec
What is the size of the focal spot on the lorad unit?
1.5 mm sq
What are some of the fail safe controls of both units?
Key, Stop button, Pressure sensors, and temp sensors
The lorad tube head has a radiation out put of?
240 R/minute at 18 in form the target.
Describe the pressure sensor for the lorad unit?
monitors pressure of SF6 gas, normally operates at 50 psi @ 70 degrees, shuts down unit if pressure drops below 25 PSI
The lorad unit will shut down when temp rises above what?
220 degrees F
The pressure relief valve of the lorad activates at?
75-80 PSI
A thin, flexable, transparent material that is coated with an emulsion that is sensitive to light and rays is know as?
radiographic film
Film that has been exposed with X-rays and processed is called what?
the first or innermost layer of the film is called what?
What is the emulsion layer of film made up of?
A gelatin material containing the silver bromide grains upon which images or registered.
What is the most important later of the film?
the emulsion layer
Grains could also be refered to as?
groups of silver bromide
Speed and sensitivity of film is determined by what?
Grain size
image that is formed by the interaction of radiation and silver bromide grains is called?
latent image
The latent image is revealed how??
By developing
How is a latent image created?
during interaction the silver atoms nad bromide atoms give up and add electrons
What happens when you add electrons to silver atoms?
They become electriclly nuetral
What makes the grains suseptable to conversion during development?
the silver atoms act as a catalyst to the devloper
what does the developing agent do?
turns the grains to black metalic silver
grains that have not been exposed will not do what?
turn black
A non-uniformity in a radiographic image?
Graininess increase with what?
Increase in film speed
With an increase in radiation energy what else will also increase?
What is signal to noise ratio?
the relationship between two density variations
For threshold visibility of detail signal to noise ration must be what?
For the best signal to noise ration you should always do what?
use the lowest kV possible
Fast film and high kV results in what?
Loss of radiographic details
Small grained films have high signal to noise ration and slow speed therefore what is required?
longer exposure time?
What determains the amount of radiation which a film must reveive to obtain a given density?
Film speed
the result of film being darkened to a different densityies by different amount of radiation?
film contrast
the difference in density that is observed by the human eye?
radiographic contrast
the ability of the film to detect and record small defects?
radiographic sensitivity
the range of radiation intensities which a film is capable of recording?
How are ASTM class special identified and what are its charachteristics?
kodak "DR" and fuji "IX25"

has low film speed

has the highest signal to noise ratio

used in electronif fields
How are ASTM class 1 identified and what are its charachteristics?
kodak "M, MX125,T" Fuji "IX20, 50, 80"

range of film speed slow-MED

moderate signal to noise ratio

used on welding, A/C engineering, construction, Maint, and nuclear components

excellent for aluminum and magnesium alloys

used in multiple speed tech
How are ASTM class 2 identified and what are its charachteristics?
kodak "AA" fuji "IX 100"

fast speed

low signal to noise ration

for short exposure times where high quality results are not reqired

for welding, ship building, pipelines, and bridges

steel components and heavy castings

steel pipe .8in thick
How are ASTM class 3 ientified and what are its charachteristics?
kodak "CX" fuji "IX 150"

Very fast film

very low signal to noist ratio

used with high kv and gamma

used on thick specimens and with x ray diffraction work
Why should unexposed film never be rapidly pulled from the box?
static electricity could result on the surface of the film
How do film artifacts apear on the film
as light or less dense areas
What is one of the most important factors in handling film?
man made defects that damage the surface of the radiograph film?
When is film more sensitve to light?
after exposure and during processing
when storing film what are some things that you should avoid?
strain and static electricity fogging
How should film be stored?
below 75 degrees never exceeding 77 degrees, film boxes laid on end, kept in a light proof box, with a max humidity of 50%
What are designed to protect film from light during transport and exposure?
cassettes and film holders
holder consisting of a bakelite or magnesium front to allow for transmission of rays and a lead foil back to absorb back scatter?
rigid cassettes
Type of holder used extensively by industry made of a heavy materials?
cardboard holders
holders used where it is necessary to contour to the shape of the part
flexible film holders
used with fluorecent and lead screns where intimate contact is paramount
vacuum cassettes
What are some advantages of manual processors?
inexpensive 2-3k

less preventive maint required

ideal for low usage
what are some disadvantages of manual processors
Time consuming 1hr

req separate dryer

human erorr

manual replenishment
What is the purpose of developing?
it blackens those parts of the emulsion which have been exposed
When developing, various shades of gray ocurr where the film has been what?
only partially exposed
the grays areas during developing are a result of what?
partiall removal of the brobides
The parts of the film that have not been exposed are not affected by what?