Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/255

Click to flip

255 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The survey instruments used for x ray radiograpy are known as what?
Radiac meters
Gas filled detector types are normally used for what?
x rays and gamma rays
Detection instruments read As ionization occures the electrons released are collected by a positivly charged anode resulting in?
in a pulse of electric current through the instrument which is indicated on a meter
What are the six distinct regions?
recombination, ion chamber, proportionality, limited, geiger mueller, and avalanche
At very low voltages the ionized atoms simply recombined with electrons resulting in no current flow what region is this?
recombintation region
In what region does increasing the current a little allows each electron to be collected resultion in a low voltage pulse>
ion chamber
Beacuse the pulse is so slight what is needed to operate the meter when reading ion chamber region?
voltage amplifer
increasing the voltage sill further resulst in secondary inonization as the ion pairs go to their respective elctrodes causing a very slight dead time. what region is this?
proportionality
what region is very sensitive to low beta and x-rays?
proportionality
what region requires a very stable power source to be used?
proportionality
accurate information is unabailable in this region for industrioal radiography.
limited proportionality region
No gas filled detectors are designed to operate in this region?
limited proportionality region
a further increases in chamber voltage results in another stabilization of meter response similar to that of the ion chamber region?
geiger mueller region (GM)
During what region does meter respones stay stable over a wide range of chamber voltage?
ion chamber
In what region can a small amount of radiation create a large electronic pulse?
Geiger mueller
What type of gas is use to dampen the effects of GM region?
quenching gass ethyl alcohol or halogens
When the meter is unable to resopnd to further radiation until the gas is stabilized this is called?
Dead time
In what region is the applied voltage so high that onced begun the gas multiplication is so intense that it continues uncontrolably?
avalanche region
what region would cause an instrument to burn out?
avalanche region
IM-231/PD RADIAC METER IS WHAT TYPE OF UNIT?
ION CHAMBER
IM-231/PD RADIAC METER HAS A RECOVERY TIME AFTER SWITCHING FROM ZERO TO mR/hr?
15SEC
IM-231/PD RADIAC METER HAS A WARM UP TIME OF?
30SEC
WHAT IS THE ACCURACY OF THE IM-231/PD
+/- 20% OR BETTER
wHAT IS THE OPERATION TEMP FOR THE IM-231/PD?
0-55 DEGREES C OR 32-130 DGREES F
What are the advantages of the IM-231/PD?
No need for highly stable voltage supply.

flat energy response

to dead time

detects gamma rays, alpha, beta, neutron, xrays.
What are som disadvantages to the IM-231/PD?
Not sensitive to very low energies

not rugged

pules below 10-14 amps looks like tube noise.
The IM-231A/PD is what type of unit?
Ion chamber
What is the recovery time of the IM-231A/PD after switching form zero-mr/hr?
5 sec
What is the accuracy of the IM-231A/PD
+/- 5% or better
What is the operation temp for the IM-231A/PD?
-40-60 C
What are some of the advantages for the IM-231A/PD?
no need for stable voltage,

flat energy time

no dead time

fairly constant steady needle response

Designed to meassure Gamma.xrays, alpha particles, beta, neutron radiation and high energy particles from machine sources.
Disadvantages of IM-231A/PD
same as IM231PD
IM-231B/PD AND IM-231C/PD HAVE A RECOVERY TIME OF WHAT FROM ZERO TO MR/HR?
5 SECONDS
IM-231B/PD AND IM-231C/PD HAVE AND ACCURACY OF?
10% OR BETTER
What are some of the advantages for the IM-231A/PD?
no need for stable voltage,

flat energy time

no dead time

fairly constant steady needle response

Designed to meassure Gamma.xrays, alpha particles, beta, neutron radiation and high energy particles from machine sources.
OPERATING TEMP OF
-40-60EC
Disadvantages of IM-231A/PD
same as IM231PD
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES?
SAME AS ADVANTAGES EXCEPT FOR DESIGNED TO MESSURE GAMMA RAYS AND XPRAYS AND BETA PARTICLES

SAME DIS
IAW THE MANUFACUTRES INSTRUNCTIONS AND THE RAD-010 THE BETTA SHEILD SHOULD BE LOWERED FOR?
120KVP OR BELOW DUE TO THE INSTRUMETNS RESPONSE TO THE AVERAGE ENERY LEVEL
IM-231B/PD AND IM-231C/PD HAVE A RECOVERY TIME OF WHAT FROM ZERO TO MR/HR?
5 SECONDS
What are the advantages to using a Ion chamber deivice vise a Geiger-mueller detector?
The ion chamber has a flat energy response vise the GM is very energy dependents at low energy levels.

the ion chamber has no dead time the GM as long dead times.
Three types of GM counter used in the navy are?
AN/PDR-27

E-140N

AN/PRD-43
what are the primary monitoring devices used?
DT-648/PD and DT-702/PD
The DT-648 is being replaced by what?
DT-702/PD for its improved capabilities
Both DT-648 and DT-702 consist of how many lithium floride chips sandwiched between two sheets of teflon an d between two sheets of aluninum rivedted together?
4
IM-231B/PD AND IM-231C/PD HAVE AND ACCURACY OF?
10% OR BETTER
Chip 1,2,3 are made of what?
lithium 7
Three types of GM counter used in the navy are?
AN/PDR-27

E-140N

AN/PRD-43
OPERATING TEMP OF
-40-60EC
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES?
SAME AS ADVANTAGES EXCEPT FOR DESIGNED TO MESSURE GAMMA RAYS AND XPRAYS AND BETA PARTICLES

SAME DIS
what are the primary monitoring devices used?
DT-648/PD and DT-702/PD
Chips 1,2,3 are sensitive to what?
photon and beta radiation
IAW THE MANUFACUTRES INSTRUNCTIONS AND THE RAD-010 THE BETTA SHEILD SHOULD BE LOWERED FOR?
120KVP OR BELOW DUE TO THE INSTRUMETNS RESPONSE TO THE AVERAGE ENERY LEVEL
The DT-648 is being replaced by what?
DT-702/PD for its improved capabilities
chip 4 is made of what?
lithium 6
What are the advantages to using a Ion chamber deivice vise a Geiger-mueller detector?
The ion chamber has a flat energy response vise the GM is very energy dependents at low energy levels.

the ion chamber has no dead time the GM as long dead times.
Both DT-648 and DT-702 consist of how many lithium floride chips sandwiched between two sheets of teflon an d between two sheets of aluninum rivedted together?
4
Chip 1,2,3 are made of what?
lithium 7
Three types of GM counter used in the navy are?
AN/PDR-27

E-140N

AN/PRD-43
Chips 1,2,3 are sensitive to what?
photon and beta radiation
What are some of the advantages for the IM-231A/PD?
no need for stable voltage,

flat energy time

no dead time

fairly constant steady needle response

Designed to meassure Gamma.xrays, alpha particles, beta, neutron radiation and high energy particles from machine sources.
what are the primary monitoring devices used?
DT-648/PD and DT-702/PD
chip 4 is made of what?
lithium 6
What type of gas is use to dampen the effects of GM region?
quenching gass ethyl alcohol or halogens
Disadvantages of IM-231A/PD
same as IM231PD
The DT-648 is being replaced by what?
DT-702/PD for its improved capabilities
When the meter is unable to resopnd to further radiation until the gas is stabilized this is called?
Dead time
IM-231B/PD AND IM-231C/PD HAVE A RECOVERY TIME OF WHAT FROM ZERO TO MR/HR?
5 SECONDS
Both DT-648 and DT-702 consist of how many lithium floride chips sandwiched between two sheets of teflon an d between two sheets of aluninum rivedted together?
4
In what region is the applied voltage so high that onced begun the gas multiplication is so intense that it continues uncontrolably?
avalanche region
Chip 1,2,3 are made of what?
lithium 7
what region would cause an instrument to burn out?
avalanche region
Chips 1,2,3 are sensitive to what?
photon and beta radiation
IM-231B/PD AND IM-231C/PD HAVE AND ACCURACY OF?
10% OR BETTER
chip 4 is made of what?
lithium 6
IM-231/PD RADIAC METER IS WHAT TYPE OF UNIT?
ION CHAMBER
OPERATING TEMP OF
-40-60EC
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES?
SAME AS ADVANTAGES EXCEPT FOR DESIGNED TO MESSURE GAMMA RAYS AND XPRAYS AND BETA PARTICLES

SAME DIS
IM-231/PD RADIAC METER HAS A RECOVERY TIME AFTER SWITCHING FROM ZERO TO mR/hr?
15SEC
IM-231/PD RADIAC METER HAS A WARM UP TIME OF?
30SEC
IAW THE MANUFACUTRES INSTRUNCTIONS AND THE RAD-010 THE BETTA SHEILD SHOULD BE LOWERED FOR?
120KVP OR BELOW DUE TO THE INSTRUMETNS RESPONSE TO THE AVERAGE ENERY LEVEL
WHAT IS THE ACCURACY OF THE IM-231/PD
+/- 20% OR BETTER
What are the advantages to using a Ion chamber deivice vise a Geiger-mueller detector?
The ion chamber has a flat energy response vise the GM is very energy dependents at low energy levels.

the ion chamber has no dead time the GM as long dead times.
Three types of GM counter used in the navy are?
AN/PDR-27

E-140N

AN/PRD-43
what are the primary monitoring devices used?
DT-648/PD and DT-702/PD
wHAT IS THE OPERATION TEMP FOR THE IM-231/PD?
0-55 DEGREES C OR 32-130 DGREES F
What are the advantages of the IM-231/PD?
No need for highly stable voltage supply.

flat energy response

to dead time

detects gamma rays, alpha, beta, neutron, xrays.
The DT-648 is being replaced by what?
DT-702/PD for its improved capabilities
Both DT-648 and DT-702 consist of how many lithium floride chips sandwiched between two sheets of teflon an d between two sheets of aluninum rivedted together?
4
What are som disadvantages to the IM-231/PD?
Not sensitive to very low energies

not rugged

pules below 10-14 amps looks like tube noise.
Chip 1,2,3 are made of what?
lithium 7
The IM-231A/PD is what type of unit?
Ion chamber
Chips 1,2,3 are sensitive to what?
photon and beta radiation
What is the recovery time of the IM-231A/PD after switching form zero-mr/hr?
5 sec
chip 4 is made of what?
lithium 6
What is the accuracy of the IM-231A/PD
+/- 5% or better
What is the operation temp for the IM-231A/PD?
-40-60 C
Chip 4 is sensitive to what?
photons, beta, neutron radiation.
DT-648 card has additives of what?
Magnisium and titanium
The DT-702 has additives of what?
magnisum, copper, and phosporus
How do TLD's work?
They record quantity and quality of radiation by comparison of the elctron activity in the chip.
TLDs are forwarded to the radiological health lab how often?
Every 6-7 weeks for processing
Any over exposures are reported to who?
Surgen general
TLDs should never be stored above what temp and why?
Above 115 degrees F and as much as 25% reduction in sensitivity
What is the range of TLD's?
0-1x10^5
The DT-518/PD is what type of devices?
Accident dosimeters
DT-518/PD can detect neutron exposure up to?

And gamma exposure up to?
50,000 RADS

10,000 RADS
IM-235 series is what type of device?
pocket dosimeter
The Im-235 is used in conjuction with but never substitued for the?
TLD's
what type of insturment is the pocket dosimeter?
Ion chamber
What is the pocket dosimeter for?
Provides instant readings of machine sources
what is the range of the IM-235?
0-200 mR
NAVY SAFETY AND OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM?
OPNAVIST 5100.8
tHE TECHNICAL MANAGER FOR THE RADIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS SUPPORT PROGRAM WHICH IS ASSIGNED BY THE CNO?
NAVSEASYSCOM
Radiological Affairs Support Program
NAVSEAINST 5100.18
Radiological affairs support manual?
NAVSEA S0420-AA-RAD-010
What manual establishes radiographical requirments for the RASP?
RAD-010
The RASP applies to all ionizing radiation within the navy and marine corps except?
nuclear propulsion, nuclear, nuclear wepons and meical dental sources
Radiation health protection manual?
NAVMED P5055
The RAD-010 is the primary source of information regarding radiation health protection to include?
Medical examination, support facilities, radiation protection standards, exposure records, personal dosimeter, Storage, handling, and disposal
A unit used to measure radioactivity?
Curie
One curie is that quantity of a radioactiv material that will have how many disintegrations in one seconds?
37,000,000,000
A unit of exposure to x or gamma radiation?
roentgen
It is that amount of radiation that will produce in air a given electrical charge per kilogram of air?
Roentgen
The unit of absorbed dose in any substance?
Radiation absorbed dose(RAD)
The unit of does equivalent for any type of ionizing radiation absorbed by body tissue?
Roentgen equivilant man
becquerel is?
formerly the curie it is the unit used to measure radioactivity.
Gray is?
Formally the Rad it is the unit used to measure absorbed dose for any type of radiation and any material
One gray equals?
100 RADS
Formaly the rem it relates the absorbed dose in human tissue to the effective biological damage of the radiation?
sieverts
Primarily of galactic origin consistinf of gihr energy protons, helium, and photos.
Cosmic radiation
The intensity of cosmic radiation varies with what?
latitude(earths magnetic fields)

Elevation (absorbtion by the atmosphere
At a given latitude and higher elevation you would?
Recive more exposure from cosmic radiation.
What is a naturally occuring radioactive isotopes?
Terrestrial radiation
Direct terrestrial radiation doses can occur from what type of building materials?
concrete, brick, stone, which all contain uranium and thorium
Terrestrial radiation consists of two types what are they?
isotope produced by interaction.

Isotope with long 1/2 lives which have been present on earth since its creation.
Natural radioactivity within the body, or inhaled radioactivity?
inhaled radon 222, ingested potassium 40, carbon 14, etc
The most common type of radiation?
man-made background radiation source
they are intentionally produced by irradiating materials with neutron beams from accelerators?
man-made back ground radiation sources.
What is a common type of accelerator source?
xray machine
How to x ray machines work?
by accelerating electrons to a high velocity and bombarding the electrons in a solid target
The kinetic energy of the electrons is released in the form of x rays called what?
bremsstrahlung
Xrays are high energy?
Photons
what is an example of reactor type sources?
nuclear reactor
What is the most intense man made radiation source?
nuclear reactors
What is the avg background exposure in the US?
203.3 mr/year
The amount of time calculated to assure that personnel exposures do not exceed a predetermined level?
Stay time

D
T= ---
R
What is the best safety factor when dealing with radiation?
Distance
If you double the distance from the source, the intensity will be what?
reduced by 1/4 of original intensity
Radiation intesity varies inversly as you squar the distance from the source this is called?
inverse square law
What is shielding for?
It absorbs part or all of the energy of various types of radiation
At low energies materials of high atomic number provide higher attenuation at?
lower barrier weight thickness
All shield barrier materials shall be assured of what 3 things?
quality, uniformity, permanency
What type of shielding provides excellent protection against mechanical damage?
lead barrier
How should lead barriers be mounted?
In a manner that will not allow cold flow.
Joints for let sheilds should be in contact with a ?
1/2 overlaid or twice the thickness whichever is greater
The thicknes of a material which will reduce a radiation intensity to 1/2 of it original value?
HVL
What are the most common sheilding materials?
lead, concrete, steel, tungsten, uranium
The intensity of cosmic radiation varies with what?
latitude(earths magnetic fields)

Elevation (absorbtion by the atmosphere
At a given latitude and higher elevation you would?
Recive more exposure from cosmic radiation.
What is a naturally occuring radioactive isotopes?
Terrestrial radiation
Direct terrestrial radiation doses can occur from what type of building materials?
concrete, brick, stone, which all contain uranium and thorium
Terrestrial radiation consists of two types what are they?
isotope produced by interaction.

Isotope with long 1/2 lives which have been present on earth since its creation.
Natural radioactivity within the body, or inhaled radioactivity?
inhaled radon 222, ingested potassium 40, carbon 14, etc
The most common type of radiation?
man-made background radiation source
they are intentionally produced by irradiating materials with neutron beams from accelerators?
man-made back ground radiation sources.
What is a common type of accelerator source?
xray machine
How to x ray machines work?
by accelerating electrons to a high velocity and bombarding the electrons in a solid target
The kinetic energy of the electrons is released in the form of x rays called what?
bremsstrahlung
Xrays are high energy?
Photons
what is an example of reactor type sources?
nuclear reactor
What is the most intense man made radiation source?
nuclear reactors
What is the avg background exposure in the US?
203.3 mr/year
the kinetic energy of the electrons is released in the form of X-rays called?
bremsstrahlung
x rays are high energy what?
Photons
What is the most intense man made radiation source?
nuclear reactors
Atmospheric testing was conducted when?
1945-1962
RESEG is what?
typical reccomended etrance skin exposure gudes
dental bite=

skull xray=

chest xray=
400mR
330mR
44mR
the average exposure for all bacground sources in the us is?
203.3mR/year
the amount of time calculated to assure that personnel exposure do not exceed a predetermined level?
stay time
The exposure or dose recived by an individual working in an area is directly proptional to?
The amound of time spent in the area and the rate or intensity of this area
The best safety factor?
Distance
If you double the distance to the source you reduce the intensity by?`
1/4 the original intensity
radiation intensity varies inversly as you what?
square the distance from the source
What is inverse square law?
radiation intesity varies inversly as you squar the distance from the source
What are shielding materials for?
they absorb part or all of the energy of vairious types of radiation.
What is xray shielding based on?
the same mechanism as x ray matter interaction
When would you use shielding?
When work shot time calls for more then is allowed or sufficant SFD can not be obtained.
At low energies materials of high atomic # provide higher what?
attenuation at lower barrier weight/thickness
All shield barrier material sha be assured of?
quality, uniformity, permenacy
What type of barrier provides excellent protection against mechanical damage?
lead
Lead barriers shall be mounted in such a manner as not allow what?
cold flow
Joints should be in contact with 1/2 overlaid or?
twice the thickness which ever is greater
Thickness of a material whick will reduce a radiation intesity to 1/2 its orginial value?
HVL half value layers
What are the five most common shield materials?
lead,concrete, steel, uranium, tunstun.
What sheild materials are used above 4000kvp?
steel, uranium, tungstun
Sheilding calculation do what?
over stimates the required amount of material
What is the sole reason for concern about the effects of ionizing radiation?
the interaction of radiation with matter particularly human body
What two categories are ionizing radiation put into?
directly ionizing radiation and indirectly ionizing radiation
What type of radiation carries a charge and can deposit energy directly into a absorber?
directly ionizing radiation
charged particles that have a finity maximum range in materials?
directly ionizing rad
What are the three major mechanisms which acct for the energy deposition by charged particle in an absorber?
ionization, excitation, and brumsstrahlung
ionization occurs when?
an incident charged partical exert a force of attraction or repulsion on the atomic orbital electron to completely reomove one or more electrom from the atom.
The positively charged atom from which the elctron was removed and the removed electroms are reffered to as?
Ion pair
occurs when incident charged particles exert enough force on atoms to raise orbital electrons to higher energy states buy noe enought force to completely reomve them
Excitation
What happens at the end of the excitation process?
the excited atom will emit photons when the electron has returned to ground state.
What type is also known as breaking radiation it is xray radiation that may occure when charged particles interact with atomic nuclei of absorber atoms.
bremsstrahlung
bremsstrahlung is exclusively associated with what?
beta and high energy electron radiation due to the interface forces between the positve nuclous and the neg betas or electrons
What type of radiation must first transfer energy to some charged particles in an absorber?
indirectly ionizing radiation
What type of radiation can travel through a considerable thickness of material with out being completely abosorbed?
indirectly ionizing radiation
Why is the range of neutrons very great in most materials?
because they have no charge
As the energy of a neutron decreases the probabiliy of?
absorption increases
Materials of what are more likely to result in gamma ray emission from meutron absorption?
hight atomic number
What is the perfered method of hydrogenous materials shielding for neutrons?
scattering
What is the main factor that affects a cells sensitivity to radiation?
RAD radiation absorbed dose
Exposure to the body, radiation can do one of what two things?
produce biological defects or pass through the body without interaction
What are the 5 categories of biological defects?
genetics, stochastic, non-stochastic, taratogenic, somatic effect
these effects occur in the reproductive cells and the damage is observable in subsequent generations?
genetic
an effect for which the probability of an effect occurring, rather than its severity is a function of dose without threshold?
stochastic
What is an example of stochastic?
cancer increase the dose a person receives you uncrease the probability of the person developing cancer
Effects for which the severity of the effect varies with dose and for which a threshold will occure?
non-stochastic
an effect occurring in the ofspring as a result of an insult sustained in utero or while the mother is pregnant?
Taratogenic only occurrs when the embryo us irradiated and not the mother.
these effect arise from damage to the cells in the body of the irradiated individual?
somatic effect
Somatic effect may be subdivided into two groups which are?
acute effects and chronic effects
Arise from large exposures delivered in a period of a few hours or less an can resul in observable syptoms and illnesses?
acute effects
What are the different acute radiation sydroms?
hematopietic, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system syndrom
What occurs after an exposure of between 70-1000 RADs?
hematopoietic
What sydrom damage blood forming organs
hematopoietic
syptoms of illness for hematopoietic occur when?
1hr-2 days after exposure
Drops blood cell count for several weeks?
hematopoietic
Death occures in some individuals after exposure to 120 RADS?
hematopoietic
occurs after exposure to 1000-10000 RADs?
gastrointestinal
syptoms of illness for gastrointestinal with in a?
Few hours after exposure
cells lining GI tract begin to die?
gatrointestinal
deathe occurs within 2 weeks of exposure for what?
gastrointestinal
occurs at 5000 RAD and above?
central nervious system symdrom
Symptoms of illness occur within minutes of exposure?
CNSS
Deathe occurs within 3 days of exposure?
CNSS
What are the four stages of acute radiation syndrome?
Prodomal, latent, illness,recovery
during the prodomal effect you may experience what?
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, fatigue
What stage do the cells begin to die however patient may appear and feel well?
latent
individuals may experience what with illness?
hemorrhaging, fever, malaise, dehydration,electrolyte imbalance.
individual will either recover with som changes or die?
recovery
those effects which can show years after the original exposure?
Chronic effect
what can come from chronic effect?
cataracts, shorten life span, carcinogenic effects
What is the primary cause of radiation accidents?
carlessness and lack of training
What are some of the factors that lead to carelessness?
boredom, fatigue, illness
What are some improper work pricedures resulting in radiation accidents?
tube head left energized, rad survy omitted improperlly done, xray not secured from unauthorized users.
all reports are submitted in detail to whom and on what form?
navmed 6470/1 via the rad health officer
Where are the instruction found for completing the NAVMED6470/1?
navmed P-5055
A report is submitted if an individual recives what?
A whole body dose in excess of exposure limits chap 4 p5055
How long do you have to submit a an accident report?
30 days
If a whole body dose of more than 5 rem in a single ancident occurs what must be done?
notify immeditatly bia phone or immidate message submit form within 24 hours
a whole body dose of more than 25 REM?
notify immidiatly by phone or message forward detailed report within 15 days after exposure.