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46 Cards in this Set

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Tranference of energy from an x-ray beam to the atoms of the body?

What is involved in it?
Abosorption

Photoelectric efect
Unit of absorption expressed in rad or gray?
absorbed dose
primary radiation emerges from the tube target and consists of x-ray photons of ___________ energies.
various
The positively charged target in the x-ray tube.
Anode
The negatively charged source of the high speed electrons
Cathode
The glass envelope encasing the x-ray tube
inherent filtration
is any that decreases the intensity of the primary photon beam.
Attenuation
Higher kvp would would cause what two photon interactions to happen?
Exit or image formation
no interaction
small angle scatter
What types of photon interactions are there?
Exit or image formation
no interaction
small angle scatter (creates fog)
Attenuated
scattered photon (affects us and doctor)
absorbed (photoelectric effect causes this to happen)
Back scatter and side scatter affect what?
occupational dose
When is FDG injected?
petscans
How is recorded detail measured?
line pairs per mm
What factors affect recorded detail?
SID
OID
Screen
Focal Spot Size
motion
Visibility of detail
Grid
KVP and MAS
Collimation
As X-RAY energy increases
1. more compton
2. less pe interaction
3. more transmission
4. less differential absorption
As tissue atomic number increases
no change in compton
more pe
less transmission thru tissue
As tissue mass density increases
more compton
more pe
reduced transmission
What is the energy range for coherent scattering?
1-50
Who discovered x-rays
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen Nov 8 1895
who discovered radioactivity?
Antoine Henri Becqurel 1898
Who discovered isolated radium?
Pierre and Marie Curie 1898
Who was the first known radiation death?
Clarence Dally 1904
If an atom loses an orbital electron it forms what?
an ion pair
The amount of energy transferred to electrons by ionizing radiation is the basis of of the concept of?
radiation dose
For the different types of radiation there is a?
quality factor
What is the energy range for photoelectric absorption and what does it have to do with?
1-50, inner shell electron
what is the energy range for compton scattering and what does it have to do with?
60-90, outer shell electron
Energy range 1.02 mEv
Pair production
An X-Ray image results from the difference between the x-rays absorbed photoelctrically in the patient and those transmitted to the IR?
Differential Absorption
What causes differential absorption?
Compton Scattering
PE effect
X-rays transmitted
Maximum differential absorption requires what?
Optimum KVP
To image small differences in small tissue, what should you do?
lower kvp
How do you lower differential absorption?
lower kvp
What 2 things affect differential absorption?
atomic # in tissue

mass density in atoms
X-ray is composed of what 2 types of photons?
Characteristic

Bremstralong
Incidental electron interacts w/ an inner shell electron
Characteristic photon
deceleration of electrons by interaction w/ target atoms.
Brems photon
What is the purpose of added filtration?
to reduce patients skin dose
If radiation produces positive and negative particles its called?
Ionizing radiation
Where does terrestrial radiation come from?
soil and rocks
The average annual DE from manmade and natural resources?
360 mRem
What is the first decay product of Radium?
Radon
Damage which leads to abnormal cell function is termed?
Biologic Damage
What radionuclides are responsible for internal radiation?
Potassium 40
Carbon-14
strontium-90
Quantity that attempts to take into account the variation in biologic harm produced by different types of radiation?
Equivalent dose
What damage would 25 rem cause?
150?
200-600?
250?
600?
blood changes (fewer lymphocytes)
nausea, diarreah
Erythmea
Gonadal sterility
death