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43 Cards in this Set

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ddx: osteopenia
HOMO

hyperparathyroidism
osteomalacia
multiple myeloma
osteoporosis
ddx: osteoporosis
senile
endocrine - thyroid, adrenal
drugs - steroids, heparin
malabsorption
renal failure
liver failure
alcohol
ddx: juvenile osteoporosis
idiopathic
renal disease
hypercotisolism
homocystinuria
osteogenesis imperfecta
mastocytosis
drugs - heparin, steroids, dilantin
JRA
radiation
leukemia

*pearl* osteopenic spine in a kid think leukemia, OI, JRA or steroids
what are the two types of stress fractures and how do they differ
insufficiency fractures: breaks in abnormal bone under normal force

fatigue fractures: breaks in normal bone that has been put under extreme force
ddx: joint effusion in a kid
infection
transient synovitis
legg-calve-perthes
hemophilia
early JRA
ddx: ivory vertabrae
CLOMP

carcinoid
lypmphoma
osteoblastic mets
mastocytosis
paget's
ddx: osteoblastic mets
5 Bs Lick Pollen

bronchogenic ca (carcinoid)
bladder ca
breast ca
brain ca (medulloblastoma, GBM)
bowel ca (mucinous, carcinoid)
lymphoma
prostate ca
ddx: multiple bone lesions
FEEMHI

fibrous dysplasia
EG
enchondroma
mets/myeloma
hyperparathyroidism/hemophilia
infection
what are the rheumatoid mimics
PAIR

psoriasis
ankylosing spondylitis
inflammatory bowel disease
reiter's
what are the causes of premature osteoarthritis
COME CHAT

CPPD
ochronosis
marfan's syndrome
epiphyseal dysplasia
charcot joint
hemophilia/hemochromatosis
acromegaly
trauma (infection, injury)
what are gout mimics
American Roentgen Ray Society, Hoorah

amyloid
rheumatoid (cystic form)
reticular histiocytosis
sarcoid
hyperlipidemia
what are the causes of monoarthritis
CRISTA

crystal disease (gout, CPPD)
rheumatoid
infection
synovial disease (PVNA, synovial osteochondromatosis)
trauma
amyloid
ddx: acro-osteolysis
S/P THR

scleroderma
psoriasis
trauma/thermal injury
hyperparathyroidism
raynaud's
ddx: metaphyseal irregularity

(aka rickets mimics)
CHARMS

congenital infection
hypophosphatasia
achondroplasia
rickets
metaphyseal chondrodysplasia
scurvy
ddx: hypertrophic osteoarthropathy
bronchogenic ca
chronic disease of the lung
cyanotic heart disease
cirrhosis
IBD
thryoid acropachy
vascular insufficicency
pachydermoperiostosis
ddx: diffuse increase in bone density (mnemonic 1)
Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic

renal osteodystrophy
sickle cell
myelofibrosis
osteopetrosis
pyknodysostosis
mets
mastocytosis
paget's
athlete
fluorosis
ddx: diffuse increase in bone density (mnemonic 2)
MARBLE

myelofibrosis/mastocytosis
anemia
renal osteodystrophy
blastic mets
lymphoma
enigmas - pagets, osteopetrosis, pyknodysostosis, tuberous sclerosis, fluorosis
how do you tell apart causes of diffuse increased density
look for:
hyperparathyroidism - renal cause
small spleen - sickle cell
big spleen - mastocytosis or myelofibrosis
bone within bone - osteopetrosis
acro-osteolysis - pyknodysostosis
mixed with destruction - met
expanded bone - paget's
ddx: wormian bones
HR COPD

hypoparathyroidism
rickets (healing)
cleidocranial dysostosis
osteogenesis imperfecta
pyknodysostosis
down's
ddx: vertebra plana
FILES

fracture
infection
leukemia/lymphoma
EG/ewing's
sickle cell
dx: diastatic sutures
HRCHOP

hypoparathyroidism
rickets
cleinocranial dysostosis
hypophosphatasia
osteogenesis imperfecta
prematurity
ddx: punched out hole in the head
MFTHOLE

met
fibrous dysplasia
trauma
histiocytosis/hemangioma
osteomyelitis
leptomeningeal cyst
epidermoid/dermoid
ddx: short radius
cornelia de lange syndrome
holt-oram syndrome
fanconi's anemia
TAR syndrome
trauma
ddx: scoliosis
NF
osteoma
radiation (at young age)
arthrogryposis
developmental abnormality (myelomeningocele, CP, marfan's)

*pearl* remember 85% of scoliosis is idiopathic
ddx: dwarfism
3 rhizo, 2 acro, 1 meso, 2 general

3 rhizomelic
achondroplasia - interpedicular distance narrows
thanatrophoric - lethal so usually post-mortem film of a fetus
spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia - platyspondyly, deformed femoral heads

2 acromelic
jeune syndrome - small chest
chrondroectodermal dysplasia

1 mesomelic
campomelia

2 generalized
osteogenesis imperfecta - bowed bones
mucopolysaccharidosis
ddx: bowing of bones
child:
osteogenesis imperfecta
fibrous dysplasia
NF

adult:
add paget's
ddx: short metacarpals
Ping Pong Is Tough To Teach or HIT MITT

hypoparathyroidism (incl. pseudoforms)
idiopathic
trauma
turner's
trisomy 13, 18
ddx: erlenmeyer flask deformity
TOPDOG

thalassemia
oseopetrosis
pyle's disease (metaphyseal dysplasia)
diaphyseal aclasia
ollier's disease
gaucher's disease
ddx: osteoarthritis at the glenohumeral joint
CANT

CPPD
acromegaly
neuropathic
trauma
ddx: madelung deformity
dyschondroosteosis
diaphyseal aclasia
trauma
idiopathic
turner's
ddx: cysts at a joint
I CHAT

infection
CPPD
hyperpara/hemophilia/hemochromatosis
acromegaly
trauma (including neuropathic)
approach to foot abnormality
look at calcaneus: should be dorsiflexed on lat and form angle with talus on AP
- if plantar then EQUINUS
- if parallel to talus then VARUS

look at forefoot - MTs should just abut one another on AP
- if overlapping then forefut VARUS
- if spread then forefoot VALGUS
ddx: demineralization and djd
hemophilia
osteomyelitis
rheumatoid/reiter's
scleroderma
SLE
ddx: axial migration of hips
PROT C

paget's
renal disease
osteogenesis imperfecta
trauma
CPPD
ddx: gracile bones
JRA
osteogenesis imperfecta
NF
ddx: focal overgrowth of limb
NF
proteus syndrome
macrodystrophica lipomatosa
kippel-trenauy-weber
ddx: posterior vertebral body scalloping
NO MAAM

NF
osteogenesis imperfecta
marfan's
achrondoplasia
acromegaly
mucopolysaccharidosis
ddx: wide interpedicular distance
fracture
dysraphism
spinal canal tumor
syrinx
AVM
list characteristics of mucopolysaccharidoses
osteopenia
vertebral deformities (hook shaped lumbar vertebral bodies)
scoliosis
mickey mouse iliac bones
short limbs
short metacarpals
what are the classic findings in cleidocranial dysostosis
abnormal clavicle (absent or hypoplastic)
multiple epiphyses
wormian bones
open symphysis pubis
what are the peak ages for ewing's and osteosarcoma
ewing's - 11 y
osteosarc - 14 y
what is the most common type of craniosynostosis
dolichocephaly
name the causes of craniosynostosis
primary:
idiopathic
crouzon's
apert's

secondary:
cerebral atrophy
anemia
healing rickets
hucopolysaccharidosis
hyperthyroidism