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320 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The circulatory system is composed of the following:
* •The cardiovascular organs— heart, blood, and blood vessels
* •The lymphatic system— lymph nodes, lymph vessels, lymph glands, and spleen
The alimentary canal is made up of:
the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus
The respiratory system is composed of
two lungs, nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tree.
The organs of the urinary system are the
kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
This system includes those organs that produce, transport, and store the germ cells
reproductive system
The nervous system is composed of the
brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and special sense organs such as the eyes and ears.
The muscular system includes all muscle tissues of the body and is subdivided into three types:
(1) skeletal, (2) visceral, and (3) cardiac.
The endocrine system includes all the ductless glands of the body. These glands include the:
testes, ovaries, pancreas, adrenals, thymus, thyroid, parathyroids, pineal, and pituitary. The placenta acts as a temporary endocrine gland.
This system is composed of the skin and all structures derived from the skin.
Integumentary System
includes 80 bones that lie on or near the central axis of the body
Axial Skeleton
consists of all bones of the upper and lower limbs (extremities) and the shoulder and pelvic girdles (126 in all)
Appendicular Skeleton
this type of bone is only found in the appendicular skeleton and has a medullary cavity
long bone
These types of bones are roughly cuboidal and are found only in the wrists and ankles.
short bones
These bones consist of two plates of compact bone with cancellous bone and marrow between them. Examples are calvarium, sternum, ribs, and scapulae
flat bones
Vertebrae, facial bones, bones of the base of the cranium, and bones of the pelvis are examples of these bones.
irregular
________are produced by the red bone marrow
RBC's
___________are found between the diaphysis and each epiphysis until skeletal growth is complete.
epiphyseal plates
Immovable joint
Synarthrosis
Joint with limited movement
Amphiarthrosis
Freely movable joint
Diarthrosis
What movement type do the following joints have: the intermetacarpal, carpometacarpal, and intercarpal joints of the hand and wrist. The right and left lateral atlantoaxial joints between C1 and C2 vertebrae
Plane (gliding) joints
What movement type do the following joints have: the interphalangeal joints of both fingers and toes, the knee joint, the elbow joint, and the ankle joint.
Ginglymus (hinge) joints
What movement type do the following joints have: the proximal and distal radioulnar joints and the joint between the first and second cervical vertebrae
Trochoid (pivot) joints
What movement type do the following joints have: the second through fifth metacarpophalangeal joints of fingers, the wrist joint, and the metatarsophalangeal joints of the toes.
Ellipsoid (condyloid) joints
What movement type does the following joint have: the first carpometacarpal joint
Sellar (saddle) joints
What movement type do the following joints have: the hip joint and the shoulder joint.
Spheroid (ball and socket) joints
What position is this: an upright position, arms adducted (down), palms forward, head and feet directed straight ahead.
anatomic position
any longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts.
sagittal plane
plane dividing the body into equal right and left parts.
midsagittal plane
any longitudinal plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior parts.
coronal plane
divides the body into equal anterior and posterior parts
midcoronal plane
any transverse plane passing though the body at right angles to the longitudinal plane, dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.
horizontal (axial) plane
Refers to the back half of the patient, or that part of the body seen when viewing the person from the back
Posterior or dorsal
Refers to front half of patient, or that part seen when viewed from the front
Anterior or ventral
Refers to the sole or posterior surface of the foot.
Plantar (plan'tar)
Refers to the top or anterior surface of the foot
Dorsal
Refers to the palm of the hand; in the anatomic position, the same as the anterior or ventral surface of the hand.
Palmar
a positioning term that describes the direction or path of the CR of the x-ray beam as it passes through the patient, projecting an image onto the IR.
Projection
Lying on back, facing upward.
supine
Lying on abdomen, facing downward (head may be turned to one side).
prone
A recumbent position with the whole body tilted so that the head is lower than the feet.
Trendelenburg
A recumbent position with the body tilted so that the head is higher than the feet.
Fowler's
A recumbent oblique position with the patient lying on the left anterior side, with the right knee and thigh flexed and with the left arm extended down behind the back.
Sim's
recumbent (supine) position with knees and hip flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally, supported by ankle supports.
Lithotomy position
This position will always be 90°, or perpendicular, or at a right angle, to a true AP or PA projection.
True Lateral
Refers to those oblique positions in which the right or left anterior aspect of the body is closest to the IR and can be erect or recumbent general body positions
RAO or LAO
For these, the patient is always lying down, and the beam is always horizontal
decubitus
In this position the patient is lying on the dorsal (posterior) surface with the x-ray beam directed horizontally, exiting from the side closest to the IR
Dorsal decubitus position—left or right lateral
In this position the patient is lying on the ventral (anterior) surface with the x-ray beam directed horizontally, exiting from the side closest to the IR
Ventral decubitus position—right or left lateral
In radiographic positioning, this term has been used to describe any angle of the CR more than 10 degrees along the long axis of the body.
Axial
This is a special use of the term projection to describe a projection that merely skims a body part to project that part into profile and away from other body structures
Tangential
This is a specific AP chest projection for demonstrating the apices of the lungs.
AP axial projection—lordotic position
A lateral projection through the thorax.
Transthoracic lateral projection
Toward the center, or median plane.
Medial
Away from the center, or median plane
lateral
near the source or beginning
proximal
away from the source or beginning
distal
toward the head
cephalad
away from the head (toward the feet)
caudad
nearer the skin surface
Superficial
on the same side of the body or part
Ipsilatera
a “swayback” type of curvature, most commonly of the lumbar spine region.
lordosis
a “humpback” type of curvature, usually of the thoracic spine region.
kyphosis
a lateral, or side-to-side, curvature of the spine
Scoliosis
decreases the angle of the joint
Flexion
to decrease the angle between the dorsum (top of foot) and the lower leg, moving foot and toes upward.
Dorsiflexion of foot
The plantar surface (sole) of the foot is turned or rotated away from the median plane of the body
eversion
a movement of arm or leg toward the body, to draw toward a center or medial line.
Adduction
a rotational movement of the hand into the anatomic position (palm up in supine position or forward in erect position).
Supination
These bones make up the bony thorax
ribs, sternum, clavicles, scapulae, 12 T-vertebrae
What 2 topographical positioning landmarks are used in positioning of the chest?
Vertebral Prominens and Jugular notch
The xiphoid tip is located at the level of what vertebra?
T9-T10
The CR location for a PA chest is:
T7
4 general divisions of the respiratory system
pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Level that the trachea divides in to rt. and lt. bronchi (Carina)
T4-T5
Each lung is contained in a delicate double-walled sac, or membrane, called the
pleura
Air or gas present in this pleural cavity results in a condition called:
pneumothorax
Accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity (pleural effusion) creates a condition called
hemothorax
The ______of each lung is that rounded upper area above the level of the clavicles.
apex
refers to the extreme outermost lower corner of each lung, where the diaphragm meets the ribs.
costophrenic angle
also known as the root region, is the central area of each lung, where the bronchi, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves enter and leave the lungs.
hilum
Four radiographically important structures located in the mediastinum are the
(1) thymus gland, (2) heart and great vessels,(3) trachea, and (4) esophagus.
This patient has a thorax that is very broad and very deep from front to back but is shallow in vertical dimension
hypersthenic
In this build, the thorax is narrow in width and shallow from front to back but is very long in its vertical dimension
asthenic
How many ribs should be visualized above the diaphragm on a good inspiration PA chest radiograph?
10
Thus in general, chest radiography uses _____ contrast, described as a ______scale contrast, with more shades of gray.
low; long
All chest radiographs should be taken in an erect position if the patient's condition allows. Three reasons for this are:
1. Allows the Diaphragm to Move Down Farther 2. Visualizes Possible Air and Fluid Levels in Chest 3. Prevents Engorgement and Hyperemia of Pulmonary Vessels
On a true PA chest without any rotation: (how evaluated)
both the right and left sternal ends of the clavicles will be the same distance from the center line of the spine.
Any more separation than this indicates rotation of the thorax from a true lateral position of the chest:
1/4 to1/2 inches, or about 1 cm
The lateral borders of these two muscles should be faintly visible on a diagnostic abdominal radiograph of a small to average-sized patient when correct exposure factors are used
psoas major
What 2 topographical positioning landmarks are used in positioning of the chest?
Vertebral Prominens and Jugular notch
The xiphoid tip is located at the level of what vertebra?
T9-T10
The CR location for a PA chest is:
T7
4 general divisions of the respiratory system
pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Level that the trachea divides in to rt. and lt. bronchi (Carina)
T4-T5
Each lung is contained in a delicate double-walled sac, or membrane, called the
pleura
Air or gas present in this pleural cavity results in a condition called:
pneumothorax
Accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity (pleural effusion) creates a condition called
hemothorax
The ______of each lung is that rounded upper area above the level of the clavicles.
apex
refers to the extreme outermost lower corner of each lung, where the diaphragm meets the ribs.
costophrenic angle
What 2 topographical positioning landmarks are used in positioning of the chest?
Vertebral Prominens and Jugular notch
The xiphoid tip is located at the level of what vertebra?
T9-T10
The CR location for a PA chest is:
T7
4 general divisions of the respiratory system
pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Level that the trachea divides in to rt. and lt. bronchi (Carina)
T4-T5
Each lung is contained in a delicate double-walled sac, or membrane, called the
pleura
Air or gas present in this pleural cavity results in a condition called:
pneumothorax
Accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity (pleural effusion) creates a condition called
hemothorax
The ______of each lung is that rounded upper area above the level of the clavicles.
apex
refers to the extreme outermost lower corner of each lung, where the diaphragm meets the ribs.
costophrenic angle
These muscles are located on either side of the lumbar vertebral column. The lateral borders of these two muscles should be faintly visible on a diagnostic abdominal radiograph of a small to average-sized patient when correct exposure factors are used
psoas major
These are considered to be accessory organs to the digestive system
liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
The three parts of the small intestine
A.Duodenum B.Jejunum C.Ileum (il'eum)
The spleen is part of the _______ system
lymphatic
The ___________ is part of the endocrine (internal) secretion system and also part of the exocrine (external) secretion system
pancreas
a radiographic examination of the urinary system, wherein the contrast media is injected intravenously. During this examination the hollow organs of this system are visualized by means of the contrast media that has been filtered from the blood flow by the kidneys
IVU
the most commonly used abdominal landmark for positioning of the abdomen
iliac crest
Since it is not advised to palpate the symphisis pubis, the __________ _________ can be used to locate the lower margin of the abdomen
greater trochanter
Abdominal radiographs are exposed on ___________ (inspiration/expiration), with the diaphragm in a superior position to better visualize abdominal structures.
expiration
_________is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity of the abdomen
Ascites
__________refers to free air or gas in the peritoneal cavity.
Pneumoperitoneum
CR should be at the level of the _____ ______ for an AP Abdomen
iliac crest
Structures demonstrated on an AP abldomen
Outline of liver, spleen, kidneys, and air-filled stomach and bowel segments and the arch of the symphysis pubis for the urinary bladder region.
Abdomen radiographs should demonstrate a ______ scale of contrast
long
Patient should be on side a minimum of __________before exposure (to allow air to rise or abnormal fluids to accumulate); 10 to 20 minutes is preferred, if possible, to best demonstrate potential small amounts of intraperitoneal air.
5 min
______lateral decubitus best visualizes free intraperitoneal air in the area of the liver in the right upper abdomen away from the gastric bubble
Left
For a left lateral decubitus abdomen, the CR should be:
2" above crest
An AP upright abdomen should include the ________ _______ to demonstrate Small free, intraperitoneal crescent-shaped air bubble if present
bilateral diaphragm
Their are _______ bones in each hand and wrist
27
The three parts of a metacarpal from proximal to distal
base, body (shaft), head
The metacarpals articulate with the phalanges at their distal ends and are called:
metacarpophalangeal, or MCP, joints
At the proximal end the metacarpals articulate with the respective carpals and are called:
carpometacarpal, or CMC, joints
the largest carpal in the proximal row and articulates with the radius proximally.
Scaphoid
the smallest of the carpal bones and is located anterior to the triquetrum
pisiform
largest of the carpal bones
capitate
The rough oval process on the medial and anterior side of the radius, just distal to the neck, is the ________ ________.
radial tuberosity
The trochlea is located more ________ and articulates with the ______.
medially; ulna
The capitulum is on the _____ aspect of the distal humerus and articulates with the head of the ________
lateral; radius
The deep posterior depression of the distal humerus
olecranon fossa
A fiberglass cast requires a _____ increase in mAs
25-30%
Most CR systems require that at least ____ of the image plate be exposed to obtain an accurate exposure index value
30%
Fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone, extending into the carpometacarpal joint, complicated by subluxation with some posterior displacement
Bennett's fracture
A transverse fracture extending through the metacarpal neck; most commonly seen in the fifth metacarpal
Boxer's fracture
A transverse fracture of the distal radius with the distal fragment being displaced posteriorly
Colles' fracture
CR placement for PA finger
PIP of affected
Degree of rotation for an oblique finger
45 degrees
To radiograph the 4th digit of the hand in an oblique, the hand should be rotated
45 degrees laterally
CR placement for AP thumb
1st MCP joint
What carpal bone should be included in a thumb radiograph?
Trapezium
CR placement for a PA hand
3rd MCP
When the hand is positioned for a PA projection, the thumb is in a _______ position.
45 degree oblique
In order for the joints of the fingers to demonstrated open on an oblique of the hand, the fingers must be _______ to IR
parallel
excessive overlap of metacarpals indicates ________ in an oblique of the hand
over rotation
CR placement for a lateral of the hand
2nd MCP joint
This position is performed commonly to evaluate for early evidence of rheumatoid arthritis at the second through fifth proximal phalanges and MCP joints.
Norgaard Method, or “Ball-Catcher's Position”
When doing a PA writs, in order to get the wrist and carpal area in close contact with the IR, the technologist should _______
arch the hand
If the oblique wrist is properly rotated, the proximal third, fourth, and fifth metacarpals should appear mostly ________
superimposed
For a routine lateral wrist, the _____surface is against the IR
medial
For the Scaphoid view, the CR is directed ______ degrees toward the _______
15; elbow
Another name for the CARPAL CANAL (TUNNEL)—TANGENTIAL, INFEROSUPERIOR PROJECTION: WRIST
Gaynor-Hart Method
For the carpal bridge--tangential projection, the CR is directed _____degrees to the long axis of the forearm
45
For an AP projection of the forearm, the patient's hand is ________
supinated
For a lateral forearm, the arm is flexed _____ degrees
90
If the following is demonstrated, what position/projection is this? The head of the ulna should be superimposed over the radius, and humeral epicondyles should be superimposed. • Radial head should superimpose coronoid process, with radial tuberosity seen in profile.
Lateral forearm
Obtain two AP projections—one with forearm parallel to IR and one with humerus parallel to IR. This is done when:
Elbow cannot be extended
Best visualizes radial head and neck and capitulum of humerus
external oblique elbow
Best visualizes coronoid process of ulna and trochlea in profile
Internal oblique elbow
A true lateral view of the elbow is indicated by three concentric arcs...they are:
the trochlear sulcus, double ridges of the capitulum and trochlea, and the trochlear notch of the ulna.
TRAUMA AXIAL LATERALS—AXIAL LATEROMEDIAL PROJECTIONS: ELBOW are also known as:
Coyle Method
True AP projection is evidenced at proximal humerus by the following: ______ _______is seen in profile laterally;
greater tubercle
For the carpal bridge--tangential projection, the CR is directed _____degrees to the long axis of the forearm
45
For an AP projection of the forearm, the patient's hand is ________
supinated
For a lateral forearm, the arm is flexed _____ degrees
90
If the following is demonstrated, what position/projection is this? The head of the ulna should be superimposed over the radius, and humeral epicondyles should be superimposed. • Radial head should superimpose coronoid process, with radial tuberosity seen in profile.
Lateral forearm
Obtain two AP projections—one with forearm parallel to IR and one with humerus parallel to IR. This is done when:
Elbow cannot be extended
Best visualizes radial head and neck and capitulum of humerus
external oblique elbow
Best visualizes coronoid process of ulna and trochlea in profile
Internal oblique elbow
A true lateral view of the elbow is indicated by three concentric arcs...they are:
the trochlear sulcus, double ridges of the capitulum and trochlea, and the trochlear notch of the ulna.
TRAUMA AXIAL LATERALS—AXIAL LATEROMEDIAL PROJECTIONS: ELBOW are also known as:
Coyle Method
True AP projection is evidenced at proximal humerus by the following: ______ _______is seen in profile laterally;
greater tubercle
To correctly position the humerus for a true lateral, one must _________ rotate the arm until the ___________ are ____________ to the IR.
internally; epicondyles; perpendicular
The shoulder girdle consists of two bones. They are:
the clavicle and the scapula
a long, curved process extending laterally over the head of the humerus
acromion process
a thick, beaklike process projecting anteriorly beneath the clavicle
coracoid process
The ______(external/internal) rotation position represents a true AP projection of the humerus in the anatomic position, as determined by the epicondyles of the distal humerus
external
a compression fracture of the articular surface of the humeral head often associated with an anterior dislocation of the humeral head.
Hill-Sachs defect
CR placement for an AP Shoulder
1 inch (2.5 cm) inferior to coracoid process
TRANSTHORACIC LATERAL PROJECTION: SHOULDER (TRAUMA) is also known as:
Lawrence Method
CR placement for Trans-thoracic lateral shoulder
Surgical Neck
POSTERIOR OBLIQUE POSITION—GLENOID CAVITY: SHOULDER (NONTRAUMA) is also called:
Grashey Method
How far is the body rotated for the Grashey?
35-45 degrees toward affected side
What is the CR angle for an AP axial of the clavicle?
15-30 degrees
Who requires more of an angle for an AP axial clavicle, a thin patient or a hypersthenic patient?
thin (10-15 degrees more)
AC joints are done _______ with and without weights
bilaterally
Weights for AC joints should be
tied to wrists
SID for AC joints is
72"
Why is the arm abducted 90 degrees and the hand supinated for an AP scapula?
To move scapula away from thoracic structures
What is the desired breathing instructions for an AP scapula?
breathing technique to blur ribs and lung structures
Which oblique best demonstrates the body of the scapula?
45 degree LAO
Which lateral scapula results in the most magnification--LPO or LAO?
LPO
The ______ articulates with four bones: posteriorly with the talus and anteriorly with the three cuneiforms.
navicular
The _______ articulates with four bones: the navicular proximally, the first and second metatarsals distally, and the intermediate laterally.
medial cuneiform
The ______ ______includes two small pointed prominences, called the medial and lateral intercondylar tubercles, located on the superior surface of the tibial head between the two condyles.
intercondylar eminence
The_______is the longest and strongest bone in the entire body
femur
CR direction and placement for toes
10° to 15° toward calcaneus to MTP jnt
Rotate the leg and foot 30° to 45° ______ for obliques of the first, second, and third digits
medially
CR placement and direction for AP foot
10 degrees posterior to base of 3rd MT
The foot is rotated _____ (how much) degrees ______ (which direction) for an oblique of the foot
30-40 degrees; medially
For the foot, correct obliquity is demonstrated when third through fifth ________ are free of superimposition and the _____ is in profile
metatarsals; tuberosity of base of 5th
For a lateral of the foot, the _____ surface is ______ to IR
plantar; perpendicular
CR direction and placement for plantodorsal calcaneus
40 degrees cephalic to base of 3rd MT
CR direction and placement for a lateral calcaneus
perpendicular to a point 1 inch (2.5 cm) inferior to medial malleolus
For a true AP of the ankle, the _________ _______will be about 15° more posterior
lateral malleolus
For the ______, the intermalleolar line is parallel to the IR
AP Mortise
For a true oblique of the ankle, the leg is rotated medially ____ degrees
45
CR placement and directioin for mediolateral ankle projection
perpendicular to medial malleolus
For a lateral tib-fib, the knee should be flexed ____ degrees
45
Rotate leg internally 3° to 5° for a true _____(or until interepicondylar line is parallel to plane of IR).
True AP
CR placement for AP knee
a point ½ inch, or 1.25 cm, distal to apex of patella
If a patient has thick thighs and buttocks, one must angle ____ (more/less) for an AP knee than you would for an average pt.
more
A properly positioned medial oblique knee will demonstrate the ________open with the lateral condyles of femur and tibia seen in profile
proximal tibiofibular articulation
Knee should be flexed ____ degrees for a lateral projection
20-30
Two names for possible Intercondylar fossa projections
Camp Coventry and Holmblad
What is true of the relationship between the lower leg and the CR for every intercondylar fossa projection
perpendicular to each other
The patient is ______ for the camp coventry method
prone
The settegast method for patella requires a ____ knee bend
90 degree
If the hip is included for an AP femure, the leg should be rotated 15° to 20° _______ to place the femoral neck in profile.
internally
Optimal exposure with correct use of ______ ______effect will result in near uniform density of entire femur
anode heel
The female pelvis has an _____ (acute/obtuse) angle of the pubic arch.
obtuse
If the entire leg is rotated internally a full 15° to 20°, the outline of the _______ ____generally is not visible at all or only slightly visible on some patients when it is obscured by the shaft of the femur.
lesser trochanter
CR placement and direction for AP pelvis
CR is perpendicular to IR, directed midway between level of ASISs and the symphysis pubis
AP BILATERAL “FROG-LEG” PROJECTION: PELVIS is also called
Modified Cleaves Method
CR direction and placement for an AP inlet of pelvis
Angle CR caudad 40° (near perpendicular to plane of inlet).
• Direct CR to a midline point at level of ASISs.
POSTERIOR OBLIQUE PELVIS—ACETABULUM is also called
Judet method
An RPO Judet visualizes the ______ acetabulum
Right
CR placement for AP Hip
1 to 2 inches (3 to 5 cm) medial and 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) distal to ASIS
AXIOLATERAL INFEROSUPERIOR PROJECTION: HIP AND PROXIMAL FEMUR—TRAUMA is also called:
Danelius-Miller method
MODIFIED AXIOLATERAL—POSSIBLE TRAUMA PROJECTION: HIP AND PROXIMAL FEMUR is also called:
Clements-Nakayama Method*
CR placement and direction for AP axial SI joints
Angle CR 30° to 35° cephalad to a midline point about 2 inches (5 cm) below level of ASIS.
A posterior oblique of the SI joint demonstrates the joint ______ (farthest from/closest to) IR
farthest from
Degree that the body is obliqued for an LPO or RPO SI joint
25-30
The posterior surface of the body and the arch form a circular opening, the _______ _______, that contains the spinal cord
vertebral foramen
The most prominent part of the thyroid cartilage, or “Adam's apple,” is at the approximate level of
C5
If the base of the skull is superimposing the odontoid process in an open mouth projection, what correction must be made?
chin down more
CR placement and direction for a AP Axial C-spine
CR angled 15° to 20° cephalad, to enter at the level of the lower margin of thyroid cartilage to pass through C4
For an RAO cervical spine, the CR is directed ____ degrees ____(caudad/cephalad)
15; caudad
The ______ intervertebral foramina is demonstrated in an RPO of the c-spine
Left
CR placement for Lateral C-spine
CR perpendicular to IR, directed horizontally to C4 (level of upper margin of thyroid cartilage)
Functional study to demonstrate anteroposterior vertebral mobility
flexion/extension
One of these projections is useful for demonstrating the superior portion of the dens when this area is not well visualized on the AP open mouth cervical spine projection.
Fuchs Method (AP) or Judd Method (PA)
CR placement and directioin for AP T-spine
CR perpendicular to IR
• CR centered to T7, which is 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) below jugular notch
For a lateral T-spine...Significant amounts of secondary/scatter radiation are generated. Close collimation and placement of a ________ _______posterior to the part are essential to maintaining image quality. This is particularly important with digital imaging.
lead blocker
The ____ of the "scotty dog" is one superior articular process
ear
The ______ zygapophyseal joint is visualized in an RPO of the L-spine
Right
involves forward movement of one vertebra in relation to another
Spondylolisthesis
Anterior wedging of vertebrae; loss of body height
compression fx
CR placement and direction for AP L-S Spine
Direct CR perpendicular to IR centered to following: Larger IR (35 × 43): Center to level of iliac crest (L4-5 interspace).
CR placement and direction for Oblique L-S Spine
Direct CR perpendicular to IR.
• Center to L3 at the level of the lower costal margin (4 cm, or 11/2 inches) above iliac crest.
The intervertebral forimina of the L-spine are best demonstrated in the _____
lateral
CR placement for Lateral L5-S1 spot
CR 11/2 inches (4 cm) inferior to iliac crest and 2 inches (5 cm) posterior to ASIS
Which projection gives less breast dose to pt for a scoliosis survey? AP or PA
PA
With this method for scoliosis studies, Two images are obtained—one standard erect AP or PA and one with the foot or hip on the convex side of the curve elevated.
Ferguson
CR direction and placement for AP sacrum
CR angled 15° cephalad, to enter at midsagittal plane midway between level of symphysis pubis and ASIS
CR direction and placement for PA coccyx
Angle CR 10° cephalad, to enter 2 inches (5 cm) superior to symphysis pubis
Degree of obliquity for an RAO sternum
15-20 degrees
Patient is rotated ____ degrees for Sternoclavicular joints
15 degrees
An RAO of the Sternoclavicular joints demonstrates the
downside (Right)
________ ______ Ribs 1 through 9 or 1 through 10 should be visualized.
Above diaphragm
If a patient has an anterior/lateral rib injury, then what view should be done?
Anterior obliques (affected side away from IR)
How many bones make up the calvaria (skull cap)?
8
The inner ________ is where the eyelids meet near the nose;
canthus
frequently used positioning line located between the outer canthus (midlateral orbital margin) and the EAM
OML
Reid's base line
IOML
Depress chin, bringing OML perpendicular to IR; Angle CR 30° caudad to OML, or 37° caudad to IOML ;Center at midsagittal plane, 2½ inches (6 cm) above glabella. What projection is this?
AP Axial---Towne method
A PA projection; Rest patient's nose and forehead against table/Bucky surface; CR 15° caudad, OML perpendicular. What method is this?
Caldwell
Raise patient's chin and hyperextend the neck if possible until infraorbitomeatal line (IOML) is parallel to IR; CR is perpendicular to infraorbitomeatal line.
• Center ¾ inch (2 cm) anterior to level of EAMs. What projection is this?
SMV
A PA axial projection in which teh CR is angled 25 degrees cephalad to the OML (OML perpendicular to IR) is called:
Haas
The Haas method is performed when a patient cannot flex their necks sufficiently for an ________
AP axial (Towne)
a fracture of the floor of the orbit caused by an object striking the eyes straight on
Blowout
a fracture caused by a blow to the cheek, resulting in a fracture of the zygoma in three places—the orbital process, the maxillary process, and the arch.
Tripod
Superimposed facial bones, greater wings of the sphenoid, orbital roofs, sella turcica, zygoma, and mandible. When this projection is properly positioned, it will demonstrateno rotation (mandibular rami are superimposed) and no tilt (orbital roofs and greater wings of sphenoid are superimposed).
lateral facial bones
This method is also known as the Parietoacanthial projection; mentomeatal line (MML) is perpendicular to the plane of the image receptor. OML will form a 37° angle with the table/Bucky surface.
The CR perpendicular to IR, to exit at acanthion
Waters
If this is correctly positioned, the petrous ridges appear just inferior to the maxillary sinuses
Waters
Correct patient position/CR angulation is indicated by petrous ridges being projected into the lower one third of orbits with 15° caudad CR for this projection
Caldwell facial bones
What facial bone projection requires that you adjust the head until lips-meatal line (LML) is perpendicular; OML forms a 55° angle with the image receptor
Modified Whaters
If a patient is unable to extend their neck for an SMV of the zygomatic arches, then the the CR may be angled so it is perpendicular to:
OML
When doing an oblique tangential for the zygomatic arch, the head is rotated ______ degrees ______ the affected side
15; toward
For the mandible, the head in true lateral position best demonstrates the:
ramus
When doing a mandible, _____ degree rotation toward IR best demonstrates the body
30
When this is correctly positioned for a mandible exam, the following will be demonstrated: condyloid processes visualized symmetrically, lateral to the cervical spine; clear visualization of condyle/temporomandibular fossae relationship, with minimal superimposition of the TM fossae and mastoid portions
Towne
The patient's face is rotated 15 degrees toward image receptor and the CR is angled 15 degrees caudad. What TMJ projection is this
Axiolateral (LAW)
For this TMJ projection, the patient is in a true lateral and the CR is angled 25-30 degrees caudad
Schuller
The frontal sinuses projected above the frontonasal suture. • Anterior ethmoid air cells visualized lateral to each nasal bone, directly below the frontal sinuses. Which projection is this?
PA Caldwell
Extend neck, placing chin and nose against table/upright Bucky surface.
• Adjust head until OML forms a 37° angle with IR (MML will be perpendicular with mouth closed).
• Position the midsagittal plane perpendicular to the midline of the grid or the table/upright Bucky surface; ensure no rotation or tilt.
• Instruct patient to open mouth by instructing to “drop jaw without moving head.” (MML is no longer perpendicular.)
• Center IR to CR and to acanthion. This describes what projection for sinuses?
PARIETOACANTHIAL TRANSORAL PROJECTION: SINUSES
Open-Mouth Waters Method
In the supine position the ________part of the stomach is the lowest part, where the heavy barium settles
fundus
3 primary functions of the digestive system
ingestion/digestion, absorbtion, elimination
When comparing the stomach of a hyposthenic patient to that of a hypersthenic patient, the hyposthenic stomach is ________ and more _________
lower; vertical
the entry of gastric contents into the esophagus, irritating the lining of the esophagus.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or esophageal reflux
characterized by a large outpouching of the esophagus just above the upper esophageal sphincter
Zenker's diverticulum
For this "maneuver" the patient is asked to take a deep breath and, while holding the breath in, to bear down as though trying to move the bowels. This maneuver forces air against the closed glottis
Valsalva maneuver
weakenings and blind outpouchings of a portion of the mucosal wall. They can occur in the stomach or small intestine
Diverticula
a condition in which a portion of the stomach herniates through the diaphragmatic opening
Hiatal hernia
For an RAO of the esophagus, the CR is perpendicular to the level of:
T5-T6
On an average patient for an RAO of the stomach, the CR is directed to the level of:
L1
Entire stomach and duodenum are visible. • Retrogastric space is demonstrated. • Pylorus of stomach and C-loop of duodenum should be visualized well in this position for an UGI
Rt. Lateral
When evaluating this UGI projection, an unobstructed view of the duodenal bulb should be seen, without superimposition by the pylorus of the stomach.
LPO
Two strict contraindications exist to contrast media studies of the intestinal tract.
perforated hollow viscus (intestine or organ) and large bowel obstruction
a double-contrast method used to evaluate the small bowel.
enteroclysis
______are saclike projections similar to diverticula except that they project inward into the lumen rather than outward as do diverticula
Polyps
The transverse colon is filled with air in when the patient is in this position
AP
In this position for a LGI, the right colic flexure and the ascending and sigmoid colon are seen “open” without significant superimposition
RAO/LPO
The patient is on their right side, the beam is directed horizontally for an AP projection, centered at the iliac crest for an Air contrast BE. What anatomy is air-filled?
left colic flexure and descending colon.
This position demonstrates the mucosal pattern of large intestine with residual contrast media for demonstrating small polyps and defects.
PA/AP Post Evac BE
CR placement and direction for the PA Axial (butterfly) of the colon
Align CR 30-40 degrees caudad to exit at level of ASIS
When performing venipuncture for an IVU, the needle should be bevel ____ (up/down) and angled toward the arm ____ degrees
up; 20-25
_____(elevated/depressed) creatinine or BUN levels may indicate acute or chronic renal failure, tumor, or other conditions of the urinary system
elevated
A technique using acoustic (sound) waves to shatter large kidney stones into small particles that can be passed
Lithotripsy
For an IVU exam, the patient is rotated 30 degrees from supine toward the right side and the CR is perpendicular to the level of the iliac crest. Which kidney is seen in profile?
Left
Obliques of the bladder for an IVU are done at a rotation of:
45-60 degrees
The purpose of angling 10-15 degrees caudad for a bladder projection is to:
project symphysis pubis inferior to bladder