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102 Cards in this Set

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Pre-Famine
What caused Irish to migrate?
Who controlled land?
Who did pop. consist of?
Where did they travel to?
What kind of work did they do?
(1822-1844)
-pop. boom
-land controlled by English landlords so forced to raise cattle
--single Irish males came to New England and Boston
-manual labor
Famine
How many people?
What caused Irish to migrate?
(1845-1854)
-1.5 million immigrants (heaviest flow in irish history)
-the blight: potato crop destroyed by disease
Post-Famine
How many people?
What caused Irish to migrate?
What work did they do?
(1855-1930s)
-2.5 million migrate
-different from other groups because of religion: Catholic (seen as subordinate group)
-became workers and soldiers in Civil War
New York City Draft Riots
(1863)
The Irish saw blacks as being reason for Civil War and resented them bc they were citizens. 105 killed.
Irish Immigration
Rate of political rise?
-Irish quickly gained political power
Irish Immigration:Boss System
Who is political boss?
What is Tammany Hall?
Who is Boss Tweed?
What is the political machine?
-political boss= middle man
-Tammany Hall=institution symbolizing corruption in NY
-Boss Tweed=middle man who runs Tammany Hall
-political machine= graft given in exchange for something
George W. Plunkitt
(during Irish Immigrations)
-explained political machine/graft system
-he would give people job opportunities in exchange for their votes
Notable Politicians
Alfred E. Smith
John F. Kennedy
Dwight Eisenhower
-Smith=1st Irish Catholic to run for Democratic Party
-Kennedy=1st to win for Democratic Party
-Eisenhower=1st German
Irish Stereotypes
-beastly and brutish
-drinking
-fighting
Transcontinental Railroad
What 2 companies built it and why was the labor performed by groups associated with each?
(1862-1869)
1. union pacific railroad-from East (Irish labor bc no $ to travel West)
2. central pacific railroad-from West (Chinese labor bc China closer to W. coast)
Chinese Exclusion Act
What caused the initial fear of Chinese?
How many times was the act renewed?
The act only allowed for who to enter the US?
(1882)
-the large # of chinese on W. Coast caused fear
-renewed 2 times: once for 10 years (1892) and then indefinately (1902)
-only educators and merchants families allowed in
History vs. Hollywood Video
Who is the director?
What is it about?
Martin Scorcese
-gangs in NY, association with Irish
William Cutting
What did he run?
Who did he work with and why?
-man who ruled the 5 points while Amsterdam grew up in orphanage
-began to work with Boss Tweed; he gave him the Irish immigrant vote
5 points
a district in NYC; very corrupt; crime and sickness common
William Amsterdam
-son of the leader of "dead rabbits" (an Irish gang)
-grew up in an orphanage but once old enough to leave he learned corruption
-reinvents dead rabbits and schedules to fight Nativists (day to fight ended up being day draft riots start)
Bill "the butcher" Poole
Nativist who has headquarters in 5 points
William T. Sherman
What did he issue?
Where did the freed slaves get to go?
(1865)
he isssued Field Order No. 15 which provided for the confiscation 400000 acres for freed slaves to live on
-the slaves were allowed to live on the Sea Islands, 30 miles of land off coast of SC
Thaddeus Stevens
Who was he and what did he help draft?
(1792-1868)
-Radical Republican
-helped to draft 14th ammendment and Reconstruction Act (1867)
Benjamin Wade
Who was he and what did he fight against?
(1800-1878)
-Radical Republican
-fought against fugitive slave act and kansas-nebraska act
Henry Davis
(1817-1865)
-Radical Republican
-anti-slavery
Wade-Davis Bill
-mandated that there be a 50% white male something to be confirmed by the Us Senate
-passed 1964 but Lincoln vetoed it and then refused to sign
Andrew Johnson
...pardons
(1808-1875)
-took charge of presidential reconstruction until 1866
-impeached by radicals in 1868 and then acquited by single vote (1st pres. to be impeached)
-...pardons used in speech addressing slaves to give them land he planned on confiscating from rich
Freedman's Bureau
What was it?
Who was it intended to help?
Who disbanded it?
federal agency formed during Reconstruction to aid distressed refugees of Civil War; primarily to aid freed slaves in south
-disbanded by Johnson
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822-1893)
-ran against Tilden in election of 1876
-illegitimate election led to him winning by 8 to 7 vote
Samuel Tilden
(1814-1886)
-ran against Hayes in 1876 election
-won by over 250,000 votes but then when redone, Hayes won
Black Codes
(enacted 1860)
laws passed on state and local level in US to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of blacks, particularly former slaves in former confederate states
Mississippi Plan
Who devised it and what was it?
Explain 2 steps.
(1875)
-devised by Democrats to violently overthrow Republicans by organized violence in order to redeem the state of Mississippi

1. persuade 10-15% of Rep. to change to Democrats
2.intimidate black population either by economic coercion or violence
Sharecropping
system of agriculture where a landowner allows a sharecropper to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced
-worked in collaboration with ex-slaves to re-employ them
Peonage
someone working in an unfree labor system
Ethnic Notions
Who produced?
Marlin Riggs
Blackface
white men who performed as blacks
-later, blacks began performing in blackface
T.D. Rice
-white comedian who performed in blackface
Jim Crow Dance
exaggerated character dance (1828)
Brute
-caricature portraying blacks as savages, animalistic, criminals, etc.
-crime is most commonly rape of white women
Mammy
-caricature of black women portrayed as docile, loyal, protective
-thought to be happy as slaves
-offered as a defense of slavery
Zip-Coon
caricature of black men portrayed as lazy, easily frightened, buffoonish, child-like, etc.
Sambo
-caricature of black men (same as Zip-Coon) but looked more like children
-offered as a defense of slavery and segregation
Pickaninnies
-caricature of black children brutes
-seen as animal-like
De Facto Segregation
something that is occuring/happening
De Jure Segregation
something that is occuring/happening by law
Plessy vs. Ferguson
What happened that led to this case?
What comes from this?
(1896)
-Homer Plessy, a mulatto, sat in white section of street car. He looked white so it was allowed but someone knew he wasnt white.
-separate but equal comes from this=segregation de jure
Grace Hale
"Making Whiteness" (1998)
-how segregation changed over the years
-whites felt superior to blacks only bc they were white
Abel Meeropool
-wrote poem "Strange Fruit"
-poem about lynching
Billie Holliday
-used poem "Strange Fruit" by Abel Meeropool to create a song (1939)
3714 "Reported" Lynchings
(1900-1930s)
GA 302
MISS 258
TX 201
LA 172
ALA 132
FL 170
Ida B. Wells
What happened to her bc of her book?
Who did she start to work with?
-wrote "Southern Horrors" (1892)
-she tried to call attention to lynching
-she was kicked out of town for her book and then began to work with WEB DuBois
W.E.B. DuBois
What 2 things is he famous for?
-wrote "The Souls of Black Folk" (1903)
-discusses problems of blacks in America
-"Crisis"=newspaper about lynching
Does the community embrace lynching?
No, they condoned it.
What 2 ways did the South remain to be in power at the turn of the century?
Segregation and Lynching
At the turn of the century, what was happeing during the early 1900s?
-blacks were at their lowest living point
-racial violence was out of control
At the cross over to the 20th century, what was taking place in the film industry?
Whites were no longer performing as blacks bc blacks were now acting
Leo Frank
man from GA who was lynched
With WWI, who was now included in the US Army?
-Race Riots (1919-1921)
-blacks included
When did lynching take place?
(Reconstruction-1950s)
Homestead Act
-free land for all willing to move to western frontier to cultivate the land
-2 to 6 million farms
Black Kettle
(1801-1868)
Cheyenne Chief who tried to secure peace for his people
-sent to Fort Lyon in CO but went to Sand Creek instead
John Chivington
Who was he searching for?
(1801-1868)
Went searching for Cheyenne in CO. He searched for months before he found them. He then held a massacre at Sandy Creek, killing even the women and children (1864).
Sitting Bull
His arrest led to what?
(1831-1890)
Lakota Chief; he did not want ppl to become Americanized
in 1890 he was arrested by Indian police...he was shot in heart. led to massacre called WOUNDED KNEE (1864)
Carlisle School
What famous person attended this school?
(1879)-Pennsylvania
Jim Thorpe-famous football player and 1st commissioner of NFL
General Allotment Act (Dawes Act)
Senator Dawes wanted to make what of the Indians?
(1887)
-Senator Dawes intended to make Indians capitalists
-80 acres polts
-massive plundering
-land rush to OK(1989)
Manifest Destiny
the idea that US citizens had ability and could move west to do their stuff
Railroads
US wants to protect from who?
What did they rely heavily on?
What dictated time in the US?
(1850-1900)
-wanted to protect railroads from Indians
-they relied heavily on time
-time was dictated by money and railroad service
Conditions of the Western Frontier
Blizzards: great blizzard of OK
Rain and Flooding
Prarie Fires
Grasshoppers
New Immigrants
(1880-1920s)
Eastern Europeans
New Immigrants
How did they arrive?
Where did they come from?
What were their characteristics?
-they arrived in large numbers
-Southern, Eastern, and Central Europe
-they are mostly young,male, poor, without families, unskilled---all things to be feared in US
How did the new immigrants live?
-they lived in dumbell tenements (NY 1879)
Italian Immigration
Stereotypes?
Criminal Roots?
Persecution?
-Dago, Guinea, Mafia, WOP
-patrone system=farm owners who dont live on farm and has someone else do job, blackhand letters=form of exhortation...kidnapping and threatening to
-lynched
Sacco and Vanzetti
Where did they work?
Why did each suffer?
-they worked in shoe factory when it was robbed on pay day
-Sacco suffered for being Italian, Vanzetti suffered for being a criminal based on ethnicity
-both executed 1927
Italian assimilation
Italians changed and Americanized their names
Nativism
Attitudes?
(1880-1920s)
-economic fears, scientific racism, cultural differences
Nativism
Responses?
Who was now in charge?
-Americanization efforts
-xenophobia
-now KKK in charge (1915-1920)
D.W. Griffith
Movie?
Who does movie come from?
The Birth of a Nation (1915)
-movie comes from Thomas Dixon
Nathan Bedford Forrest
(1821-1877)
founder of KKK
William Simmons
(1880-1945)
leader of KKK in 1915
Eugenics
Who does it target?
Laws?
What gave way to Eugenics?
the idea that the strong should survive and the government should help
-targets the poor and immigrants
-30 states have laws (1930)
-WWII and Holocaust gave way to Eugenics
Hugo Black
(1886-1971)
KKK attorney; he successfully defended methodist preacher who killed Catholic Priest
What did the KKK lead to?
Anti-Jewish Organizations
the Protocols of the Elders of Zion
publication set forth by Russian police at the end of the 1800s
Dominant language in schools during the 1830s
German
when was there a backlash agaisnt Germans?
1880s
The Bennet Law
(1890)
passed in Wisconsin saying English must be taught for 16 weeks in order to be a school and receive money from gov.
Nebraska, 1919
1 out of 10 bills involved language and removing german
During WWI, who was most commonly lynched?
the German because they were seen as the enemies
Gentlemen's Agreement
(1907-1908)
informal agreement between Japanese and Americans
Issei vs. Nissei
-Issei=first generation
-Nissei=second generation
Ozawa vs. US
(1922)
-Jap with white wife and kids
-thought being white could be determined by science
-Ozawa not allowed to become a citizen
US vs. Thind
-Indian
-thought being white was not determined by science
-allowed to become citizen
Cable Act
Who was it targeted at?
(1922)
anyone who married an ineligible would lose their citizenship
-targeted white women
Immigration Act of 1924(National Origins Act)
wanted to make country WASP again
Joe Louis "The Brown Bomber"
great boxer; received medal as symbol of strength for nation
George Armwood
1933
last black man to be lynched in MD
Charles Houston
(1895-1950)
black lawyer; he planned to attack and defeat jim crow segregation by using "separate but equal" doctrine as it pertained to education
Donald Gaines Murray
(1935-1937)
black who wanted to attend Univ. in MD
-his case successfully challenged segregated education
Mary McCloud Bethune
(1975-1955)
worked with FDR trying to get him to propose law against lynching
Claude Neal
1934
lynched for murder, mob beat him then dragged him behind car
David Sholtz
(1891-1953)
passed workers comp law
mandated free textbooks
funded salaries for teachers
Maya Angelou
1922-present
multiple writings
clothes hoax attacking kkk
Jesse Owens
(1919-1980)
American track and field athlete
Avery Brundage
(1887-1975)
racist decisions in Olympics
-replacing owens with jews on team
Father Coughlin
(1891-1979) Catholic priest at Little Flower
-radio program
Robert Wagner
(1877-1953)
German immigrant, became Democratic Senator; tried to get FDR to support anti-lynching bill
Marian Anderson
(1897-1993)
black singer
-DAR refused to let her sing at Constitution Hall in 1939