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35 Cards in this Set

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3 Perspectives on Race and Biology
1. Hubbard-studying race as biology leads to evil like eugenics and is hamful
2. Leroi- studying race as biology is accurate and helps us to deliver better medical care, povides knowledge for genome mapping, and can encourage us to value humans
3. Lewontin- race is not biological, it is impercise and can lead to less effective health care
*our social understanding of race is not linked to genetics/or biological differences
Impact of GI Bill
Jews/Euroethnics gain access to GI Bill after WWII-come back from war and recieve many benefits:
college prefernces, home loans, small business loans, job preferences
amazing impact-HUGE economic boom
blacks and women were denied access
How Jews Became White
1940 Census: redifined Jews-legal switch
Were given access to GI Bill/Economic boom- access to become middle class and then they become socially acceptable as white
*race and money closely connected-$ and social acceptance
Biological Distinctions
skin color is a result of the sun-darker skin to protect from sun(near equator)
vitamin D
our social understanding of race is not linked to genetics/or biological differences
Racial Formation
The process by which social, economic, and political forces determine the content(meaning) and importance(social significance) of racial categories
Racialization
An extension of racial meaning to a previously racially unclassified relationship, social practice or group
Racial Ideology
A conceptual or cognitive frame that emerges from the struggles of competing political projects and ideas seeking to articulate similar elements differently
Racial Formation of Immigrants
Britian places a ban on immigration-America experiences labor shortage and opens it borders to the World
-1 million Germans
-655,000 Italians
Tensions over identity of the country lead to a suspicion of "foreigners"- The Naturalization Act sets no limits on immigration but has restrictions on naturalization
-allows the natin to reap the benefits of immirants w/o running the risk of assimilating the
-many immigratnts would now be considered white
Ethnic Group
Identity is based on putative common descent, claims of shared hisory and symbols of peoplehood
-identity may originate in either assignment by others or asserion by selves
-identity may or may not reflect power relations
-identity usually constructed by both selves and others
Racial Group
identity is based on perceived physical differences
-identity typically originates in assignement by others
-identity typically reflects power relations
-identity is constructed by others
Racial Formation of Africans
South development relied upon large, cheap reserve of labor-economic need for workers of plantation lead to racial ideology.
Identify Africans as: less than human, in need of caretakers, intended for hard work
Racial Formation of Native Americans
Desire for land leads to tension with N.A-white/indian equality existed when Iroquois confederacy hand enough power and early settlers were dependent on them for protection and trade
As colonies grew: gained power, desired more land
As a result the developed the image of N.A. as "savage" who did not own land because did not farm it-justified the taking of land:soil needed to be tilled, savages could not make legal contracts, manifest destiny, as godless people N.A. did not deserve compassion
Racial Fomation of Afrikaners
British take control of cape colony, british institute: more liberal policies towards natives, english only laws, anglicanized the schools-these einforce Afrikaner identity. Development of history, literature, and institutionalizaion of customs, sense of group idenity from dutch reformed church- called by God. Racial formation of Afrikaners stemmed from Dutch colonialim and oppression by British colonalist
Racial Formation of Taino
Lived peaceably until Spanish assumed gov of PR-enslaved natives, each encomienda came with native men/women who were assigned to work the lan and serve the spanish landowners.
1517 Taino labor is replaced by Afican slaves-key differnce from U.S. slavery: sevice to God and King vs. chattel slavery
Racial Formation in France
French citizenship is based on revolutionay ideals that people will demonstrate their "frenchness" rather than based on blood or kinship...
Problematic when colonized people imigrated to france-how "frenchy" did they have to be to obain citizenship
1950's labor shortage leads to increase in immigraion-muslims and africans no thought to demonstrate "frenchiness"-they maintain language, cultural traditions, or Shia'a law
Karl Marx Racial Stratification
class would usurp race-poor bond together
This has never happened: poor whites profit off racial inequality, white only unions, more blatant racism among poor
Max Weber Racial Stratification
Rationalization would render race and all communal ties irrelevant
Not happened: racial ties remained strong, ethnic ties remained strong, racial stereotypes have become rationalized
Robert Park Racial Stratification
Race Relations Cycle-inevitable an unsoppable (melting pot theory)
Contact
immigrant pop. making contact w/ natives, wave of immigrants moving into comunity
Competition
over resources/rewards of society, values
Accommodation
parts on immigrants or on dominate race, altering native dress/or language
Assimilation
fully part of dominate group to which they've joined
Cultural assimilation
norms, values, customs of society
Structual assimilation
geographical location
Marital assimilation
moment assimilation is complete-final stage
Identification assimilation
feelin apart of community
Attitude assimilation
bring different attitudes/beliefs
Behavior assimilation
behavior, actions and interactions with others
Civic assimilation
gov. participation, business participation
Problems with Robert Park
does not account fo what society is saying, intermarriage means people had become acceptant, all immigrants shoud act like white americans (A+B+C=A)- white washing
Primordial vs. Circumstantial
fixed and fluid
structure of inequality-tie yourself to a certain group'group ties by nature or convience?
relathionship to history
social scientific variable-independent variable that explains social outcome vs. social circumstances build on circumstances-dependent
Possessive Investment in Whiteness
homogenous colonies, dichoomous catgories-consructed identity based upon whites
The "unmarked category"
The social structure makes whiteness the norm...default category(invisible)
whiteness is the unmarked category against whch difference is constructed
whiteness gets power in appearing to be nothing at all-privliges
Pre-Civil War White racial formation
Original census 1970- free males white males, free white females, other
1800's census attempts to determine mixed
Jim Crow Era White racial formation
1920's: one drop of blood rule