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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is rabies?
Disease caused by a virus. It attacks the central nervous system of mammals.
What animals do rabies infect?
warm blooded animals only
Is rabies always fatal if not treated in time?
yes
How is rabies spread?
biting
contact with cut, sore, open wound, mucous membrane.
Trace the movement of rabies throughout the body.
Central nervous system to brain to saliva
Does an animal have to be showing signs to be infective?
No an animal can be infectious a few days before showing any signs.
What are the symptoms of animal rabies?
Depression
partial paralysis and aggressive behavior
What are the two types of rabies
Dumb and furious
What are the symptoms of furious rabies?
Dumb
- Some animals may become depressed and retreat to isolated places.
- Wild animals especially skunks may lose their fear of humans
-Normally nocturnal anmimals may be active during the day.
-There may be signs of paralysis.

Furious rabies-
-Diseased animals are in a state of extreme excitement and aggression.
-They may gnaw and bite their own limbs.
-They may attack objects or other animals.
-Bouts of furious rabies usually alternate with periods of depression.
How long does it take an animal to become rabies once infected?
2 weeks to many months
Can animals that nave no rabies pass on the virus?
Yes. Virus can be found in the saliva a few days before obvious clinical signs develop.
Do all animals that get rabies die?
yes
What anmimals can get rabies?
Any mammal no reptiles
Once infected how long does it take a person to get rabies?
2 weeks to many months
Give 4 ways a person can get rabies?
1 biting
2 contact with cut, sore
3 contact with mucous membrane (mouth, naval cavity, eyes)
4 careless handling of dead rabid animal
What is quarantine period for animals suspected of rabies?
10 days
At what age do dogs and cats have to be vaccinated according to regulations?
3 months
What are the post exposure vaccinations and how are they administered?
Five doses of 1 mL of HDCV should be given, the first dose (on day 0) as soon as possible after exposure, and additional doses on each of days 3, 7, 14 and 28 after the first dose. Vaccine should be administered intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle (never in the gluteal region) or the anterolateral upper thigh in infants. An appropriate dose of RIG, as described below, should also be given on day 0. Other immunization schedules have also been validated by the WHO.
Is it ever too late to administer post-exposure prophylaxis?
No

Post-exposure prophylaxis should be started as soon as possible after exposure and should be offered to exposed individuals regardless of the elapsed interval. If the suspect animal is domestic and is available for quarantine, then immunization may be withheld pending the animal's status after the 10-day observation period. However, if the bite wound is to the head and neck region, prophylaxis should begin immediately and not be delayed until after the 10-day period. When notification of an exposure is delayed, prophylaxis may be started as late as 6 or more months after exposure.
What if the person had been vaccinated before being bit?
Pre-exposure immunization

Three doses of HDCV are required and should be given on days 0, 7 and 21. The vaccine is given as a 1.0 mL dose intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle or the thigh in infants. Although intradermal vaccine has been shown to produce adequate titres, there is no preparation licensed for intradermal use in Canada.
A pet owner asks if she should obtain rabies vaccination because she thinks she got
saliva on her hands while playing with her dog that had killed a rabid raccoon earlier that
day. What constitutes a rabies exposure?
Rabies is transmitted when the virus is introduced into bite wounds, breaks in the skin, or onto mucous membranes. Three questions to ask are: 1) Was the person bitten?; 2) Did saliva or
central nervous system material from a rabid animal contaminate an open wound or mucous
membrane?; and 3) Was the animal in question a bat?

If all can be answered
no, then no exposure occurred and postexposure prophylaxis is not required. Petting a rabid
animal, and contact with blood, urine, or feces of a rabid animal does not constitute an exposure
and is not an indication for prophylaxis [9]. If the answer to at least one of these questions is
yes, then exposure to rabies is a possibility and the likelihood that the animal has rabies must be
considered.
Camping scouts notice several bats fluttering in the trees above them. Their adult
leader wonders if they should get treatment. Can rabies be caused by aerosol transmission?
Although nonbite routes of infection are possible, they are exceedingly rare and not
applicable to usual public exposures. Merely seeing a bat or being in the vicinity of bats does not constitute an exposure.
A nurse calls asking if she should give postexposure prophylaxis intradermally to a
patient bitten by a rat. How is the secondary or postexposure prophylaxis administered?
These animals are not reservoirs and there have been no documented cases of rabies transmission to humans by these animals
An emergency room doctor sees a patient with an infected raccoon bite 6 weeks after
it occurred and questions if it is still useful to give rabies prophylaxis. How long after an
exposure would prophylaxis still be considered?
prophylaxis (including RIG) should still be given, regardless of the length of time
between exposure and clinical presentation