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21 Cards in this Set

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Famous Jewish rabbi (c. 50-135 CE) in ancient Palestine; a major legal scholar, who established an academy in B'nai Brak, and was also a legendary mystic and martyr. He was tortured and killed by the Romans in 135 CE.
Akiba (Aqiba, Akiva) ben Joseph
Greek term for the attribution of human behavior or characteristics to inanimate objects, animals,
natural phenomena or deity. With regard to deity, anthropomorphism became a point of theological discussion in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
This refers to the period between 587 and 538 BCE when many Jewish families were held captive in Babylon. After Cyrus of Persia conquered Babylon in 538, Jews were given permission to return to Judea.
Babylonian exile
The second Jewish revolt against Rome (131-135 CE), lead by the warrior ___ ______ and the prominent sage Rabbi Akiva. The Roman emperor Hadrian promised at first to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple, but later changed his mind and decided to establish a Roman colony there instead. After the defeat of the revolt at Betar the Romans leveled Jerusalem and exiled the population.
Bar Kokhba Revolt
(Heb., “covenant”). A pact between two parties. The major covenants in Jewish scriptures are God's covenant with Abraham (Genesis 15), and the Sinai/Moses covenant (Exodus 19-24) between God and the people Israel. In Judaism, the covenant is a major theological concept referring to the eternal bond between God and the Jews grounded in God's gracious and steadfast concern (hesed) that calls for the nation's obedience to the divine commandments (mitzvot) and instruction (Torah).
Berit or Brit
In 313 CE, the Byzantine Empire was established in the eastern part of the Roman Empire after the emperor Constantine adopted Christianity. The Land of Israel had become a predominantly Christian country, and Jews were deprived of most of the little autonomy they still had. This was called the _________ Period.
Byzantine Period
According to the Torah, Jews were ______ by God to receive the Torah and were given the special obligation to be “A Light Unto The Nations.”
Chosen People
(mitzvot; sing., mitzvah). There are 613 religious ____________ (mitzvot) referred to in the Torah (and elaborated upon by the rabbinic sages). Of these, 248 are positive ____________ and 365 are negative. The numbers respectively symbolize the fact that divine service must be expressed through all one's bodily parts during all the days of the year. In general, a mitzvah refers to any act of religious duty or obligation; more colloquially, a mitzvah refers to a “good deed.”
(Greek “scattering”). Refers to the Jewish communities living outside of the Land of Israel.
The three aspects of Judaism. God is the spiritual and Divine part of Jewish life and belief; _____ refers to the laws and commandments through which Jews express their relationship with ___; and ______ refers to the Jewish people.
God – Torah – Israel
(Heb., “land of Israel”). In Jewish thought, the special term for the land promised to the Jewish people by God in the Torah.
Eretz Yisrael/Israel
(Heb., “exile”). The term refers to the various expulsions of Jews from the ancestral homeland. Over time, it came to express the broader notion of Jewish homelessness and the state of being aliens. Thus, colloquially, “to be in galut” means to live in the diaspora and also to be in a state of physical and even spiritual alienation from the land of Israel.
("the name"). Commonly used to refer to God, while avoiding casual use of God’s name in conversation.
This term refers to the adaptation of Greek thought and patterns of behavior by non-Greeks. In the ancient Near East, _________ became predominant after Alexander the Great and his successors tried to instill ______ic culture throughout their empires. The Jewish communities in Alexandria, Egypt, in Jerusalem and its environs, and throughout the Roman Empire adopted ______istic ways.
Probably a Babylonian, ______ was an important sage of the early Jewish period in Palestine around the turn of the era. His teachings convey the Pharisaic ideal through many epigrams on humility and peace (found in Sayings of the Fathers, 1-2), and were fundamental in shaping the Pharisaic traditions and modes of interpretation. In rabbinic lore, ______ is famous for a negative formulation of the “golden rule” (recited to a non-Jew): “What is hateful to you do not do to your fellow man. That is the whole Torah, the rest is commentary. Go and learn it.” His style of legal reasoning is continued by his disciples, known as Beit ______ (“House/School of ______ ”), and is typically contrasted with that of Shammai (a contemporary) and his school.
("anointed one"). Ancient priests and kings (and sometimes prophets) of Israel were anointed with oil. In early Judaism, the term came to mean a royal descendant of the dynasty of David who would restore the united kingdom of Israel and Judah and usher in an age of peace, justice and plenty. The concept developed in many directions over the centuries. The messianic age was believed by some Jews to be a time of perfection of human institutions; others believed it to be a time of radical new beginnings, a new heaven and earth, after divine judgment and destruction.
(adj. rabbinic, Heb., “my master”). An authorized teacher of the classical Jewish tradition after the fall of the second Temple in 70 CE. The role of the _____ has changed considerably throughout the centuries. Traditionally, ______ serve as the legal and spiritual guides of their congregations and communities. The title is conferred after considerable study of traditional
Jewish sources. This conferral and its responsibilities is central to the chain of tradition in Judaism.
A general term encompassing all movements of Judaism descended from Pharisaic Judaism, and includes all movements in existence today.
Rabbinical Judaism
(from Greek for “assembly” [of persons seated together]). A legislative and judicial body from the period of early Judaism and into rabbinic times. Traditionally composed of 71 members.
Jewish term for the divine presence; the Holy Spirit. In Kabalism it sometimes took on the aspect of the feminine element in the deity.
(Heb., kotel). The only remaining structure from the Second Temple left standing after the Roman destruction. Actually, part of the retaining ____ of the mount on which the Temple stood. Since the Jews are considered to be in a state of “ritual impurity” until certain special sacrifices can be brought (notably the ashes of the red heifer), some authorities hold religious Jews are forbidden to set foot on the actual site of the Temple and therefore, the _______ ____ is the closest they can come to praying at the Temple site. Others hold, however, that Jews may ascend the Temple Mount compound and are only forbidden to enter certain areas inside it. Sometimes called the “Wailing ____.”
Western Wall