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80 Cards in this Set

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a class of energy yeiding nurtients composed of individuls buiding blocks known as amino acids.
Protein exist where in the body?
Protein is a component of every living cell. Except for bile and urine, every tissue and fluid in the body contains some protein. In fact the body contains as many as 100,000 different protein that vary in size, shape and function.
are proteins that facilitae specific chemical reactions i the body without undergoing change themselves.
Body secrections and fluids
Hormones, ex. insulin, thyroxine, epinephrine, neurotransmitters, ex. (serotonin, aceytlcholine), and antibodies are all made from amino acids as are breast milk, mucus, sperm, and histimine.
fluid and electrolyte balance
Proteins help to regulate fluid balance because they are attracted to water. thereby creating osmotic pressure.
circluating proteins maintaining the proper balance of fluid amount the intravascular (within the veins and arteries), intracellular (inside the cell), and interstitial (in the fluid between the cells) compartments of the body.
A symptom of low albumin is edema (swelling of the lower extremities).
acid base balance
amino acids contain both an acid (COOH) and a base (NH2), they can act as either acids or bases depedking on the pH of the surrounding fluid. This ability to buffer or neutralize excess acids and bases enables proteins to maintain normal blood pH, which protects body proteins from being denatured(with subsequent loss of function)
Transport Molecules
Globular proteins transport other substances through the blood.
Amino Acids
the basic building blocks of all protiens.
fueling the body
like CHO, proteins provides 4cal/g. Although it is not the bodys preferred fuel, protein is a source of enery when it is consumed in excess of need or when calorie intake from CHO and fat is inadequate.
essential or indispensable amino acid
amino acid that cannot be made by the body, they must be consumed through food. There are 9 of which are essential, (cannot be made from the body). so they must be supplied through a diet.
Nonessential or dispensable amino acid
amino acids the body can make if nitrogen and other precursors are available. 11 of these amino acids are classified as NONessential because the cells can make them from as needed through a process called transamination.
a process of removing the amino group from one amino acid and combining it with carbon fragments of glucose molecules to create a differnt particular amino acid.
number of amino acids
there are 20 amino acids altogether, 9 of which are essential, they cannot be made from the body and 11 that are nonessential because cells can make them as needed though a process callled transamination. All 20 MUST be available for the body to make proteins.
ten or more amino acids bonded together.
Amino acid and their shapes
Amino acids may form proten that are straight, folder, or coiled along one dimension or they may take on a three dimensional shape as spheres or globes.
Proteins Shapes
Determines its function
digestion of protein
begins in the stomach, where hydrochloric acid (The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). It is a strong acid, the major component of gastric acid and of wide industrial use.) denatures protein to make the peptide bonds more availiable to the active enzyme pepsin, which begins the process of breaking down protein into smaller polypeptides and some amino acid.
three amino acids bonded together
two amino acids bonded together.
Metabolic Pool
a limited amount of free amino acids available in cells that are given up and acepted as a dynamic reserve.
Metabolism for amino acids
the liver acts as a clearing house for the amino acid it receives, it uses the amino acid it nees, releases those needed elsewhere, and handles the extra. The liver coordinates amino acid metabolism.
Protein synthesis
is a complicated but efficent process that quickly asembles amino acids to create proteins needed by the body. (is the process in which cells build proteins)
Nitrogen Balance
when protein synthesis and protein breakdown occur at the same rate.
Positive nitrogen balance
when protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown.
Ex: exist during the growth, pregnacy or recovery of an injury.
Negative Nitrogen Balance
an undesirable state that occurs when protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.
EX: Occurs during starvation or the catabolic phase of an injury.
Protein turnover
the constant breakdown and synthesis of endogenous (Endogenous substances are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell ) protein.
the process of stripping amino acids of their amino group (NH2).
calculating nitrogen balance
determine nitrogen intake by dividing protein intake by 6.25, (Marys protein intake in 24hrs is 64 g), = 64 divided by 6.24 = 10.24 g of nitrogen) 2) determine total nitogen output by adding a coefficent to 4 to the uninary urea nitogen UUN (Marys UUN collection result was 19.8) 19.8 + 4 = 23.8 g of nitrogen) 3) calculate nitrogen balance by subtraction nitogen output from nitrogen intake (10.24-23.8 = -13.56 g in 24 hours. A negitive # indicates that protein breakdown is exceeding protein synthesis. Mary is in a catabolic state (Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that break down molecules into smaller units and release energy).
Glucogenic Amino Acids
Amino acids that can be used to sythesize glucose; approximately 58% of the amino acids in the protein are glucogenic.
the formation of fat
Complete Proteins
Provide all nine essential amino acids in adequate amounts and proportions needed by the body for tissue growth and maintaince.
Incomplete protein
a protein that is low in one or more essential amino acids
Limiting amino acids
the essential amino acid that is present in the smallest amount; it limits protein synthesis because it is not available, protein synthesis cannot occur.
complementary proteins
two proteins that when conbined, provide adequate amounts and proportions of all essential amino acids needed to support protein synthesis.
High Quailty Protein
a complete protein that is highly digestible.
Intake recommendations of protein
The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein for a health adult is 0.8 g/kg which is approximately 10%.
Calculating protein allowance
John is a 34 yr old man who wieghs 184. What is his protein allowance?
1) determine the wieght in kilograms by dividing the wieght in pounds by 2.2.(184 Divided by 2.2 = 83.6 g 2) multiply the weight in kilograms by 0,8g/kg (83.6 X 0.8 = 66.88.
John should consume 67 g of protien a day
In whom is protein a defeciency?
elderly, fad dieters, and hospilized patients.
loosley defined as the abstince from animal products; encompasses a variety of eating styles.
Pure Vegatarians or Vegans
People who eat only plant; they form the smallest group of vegans
Lacto vegetarians
vegatarians whose diets include milk and milk products
Lacto Ovo Vegatarians
vegatarians whose diets include both milk products and eggs.
Omega -3 fatty acids
Omega-3 fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids which have in common a carbon-carbon double bond in the ω-3 position. Important omega-3 fatty acids in nutrition are: α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA.
One of the Omega 3 fatty acids) α-linolenic acid (ALA)
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. It is a component of many common vegetable oils and is important to human nutrition.
One of the omega 3 fatty acids) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. In physiological literature, it is given the name 20:5(n-3). It also has the trivial name timnodonic acid. Chemically, EPA is a carboxylic acid with a 20-carbon chain and five cis double bonds; the first double bond is located at the third carbon from the omega end.
One of the Omega 3 fatty acids) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA
DHA is most often found in fish oil. DHA is a major fatty acid in sperm and brain phospholipids, and especially in the retina. Low levels of DHA cause reduction of brain serotonin levels[2] and have been associated with ADHD, Alzheimer's disease, and depression, among other diseases, and there is mounting evidence that DHA supplementation may be effective in combating such diseases.
is the brand name for a line of imitation meats approved in the united states in 2002.
commonly referred Lipids
commonly referred to as fats, include triglycerides, (fats and oils), phospholipids (lecithin), and sterols (cholestrol),
a group of water insoluluble energy yielding organic compounds composed of carbon, hygrogen, and oxygen atoms.
a class of lipids composed of glycerol molecules as its backbone with 3 fatty acids attached.
tryglycerdies in foods
Tryglycerides account for 98% of the lipids in foods and are the major storage of fat in the body.
Fatty Acids
Almost all fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms in their chain, the range being 2 to 24, Short chain fatty acids contain 2 to 4 cabon atoms, medium 6 to 12 carbon atoms, and long chain fatty acids contain 14 and more carbon atoms. The length of the chain determines how the fat is absorbed.
Saturated fat
when all the carbon atoms in a fatty acid have four single bonds each are said to be "saturated" with hydrogen atoms.
Unsaturatd fatty acid
does not have all the hydrogen atoms it can potenially hold therfore, one or more double bonds form between carbon atoms in the chain.
that is if one double bond exists between two carbon atoms.
if there is more than one double bond between carbon atoms.
is an important characteristic because it influences a fats physical traits and its impact on health.
a three carbon atom chain that serves as the backbone of triglycerides.
Saturated Fatty Acids
fatty acids in which all the carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as they can hold so no double bonds exist between carbon atoms.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
faty caids that are not completely saturated with hydrogen atoms, so one or more bouble bonds form between the carbon atoms.
Omega 6 (n-6) fatty acid
an unsaturated fatty acid whose endmost double bond occurs six carbon atoms from the methyl end of its carbon chain
Omega 3 Fatty Acids (n-3)
an unsaturated fatty acid whose endmost double ond occurs three carbon atoms from the methyl end of its carbon chain.
Unsaturated Fats
are the Good FATS. There soft or liquid at room tempature, such as oils and soft margarine.
Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL) - risks
It is well known that eating less saturated fat lowers LDL-Cholesterol levels, which in turn reduces the risk of coronary heart disease.
Fish Oils
a common term for the long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids eicospaentaenocic acid (EPA) and dosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in th efat of fish, primarily in cold water fish.
a process of adding hydrogen atoms to unsaturated vegetable oils (usually corn, soybean, cottonseed, safflower, or canola oil), which reduces the nuber of double bonds; the number of saturated and monounsaturated bonds increase as the of polyunsaturated bonds decrease.
unsaturated fatty acids whose hydrogen atoms occur in the same side of the double bond.
Trans Fat
unsaturated fatty acids that have at least one double bond whose hydrogen atoms are on the opposite sides of the double bonds, "trans" means across in Latin.
a group of compound lipids that is simular to triglycerides in that they contain a glycerol molecule and two fatty acid, phospholipids have a phosphate group and a molecule of choline or another nitrogen containing compound. Phospholipids are a class of lipids, and a major component of all biological membranes, along with glycolipids, cholesterol and proteins. Understanding of the aggregation properties of these molecules is known as lipid polymorphism and forms part of current academic research.
Lecithin is the best know phospholipids
claims that it lowers blood pressure, improves memorie, controls weight lose, and cures arthritis, hypertension, and gallbadder problems are unfounded. No studies show any facts to back this up. It is not even an essential supplements that the body needs.
a stabilizing compound that helps to keep both parts of an emulsion (iol water mixture) from seperating.
one of the three main classes of lipids that include cholesterol, bile acid, sex hormones, the adrenocortical hormones and vit. D.
is a sterol, a waxy substance wose carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen moleucles are arranged in a ring. Cholesterol is in the tissues of all animals. Cholesterol does not provide calories, the body synthesizes bile acids, steroid homones, and vit. D from cholesterol.
a glyceride molecule with one one fatty acid attached.
Fat Metabolism:
is regulated by hormone, adrenocoritcotropin (ACTH), ephephrine, glucagon, glucocorticoids, and throxine promote fat mobilization (catabolism), insulin imhibits the activity lipase.
Fat Catabolism:
Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that break down molecules into smaller units and release energy. In catabolism, large molecules such as polysaccharides, fatty acids, nucleic acids and proteins are broken down into smaller units such as monosaccharides, fatty acids, nucleotides and amino acids, respectively. As molecules such as polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids are made from long chains of these small monomer units, the large molecules are called polymers
Fat Anobolism
Anabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units, these reactions require energy. One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular, organ or organism level is as 'anabolic' or 'catabolic', which is the opposite. Anabolism is powered by catabolism, where large molecules are broken down into smaller parts and then used up in respiration. Many anabolic processes are powered by adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Anabolic processes tend toward "building up" organs and tissues. These processes produce growth and differentiation of cells and increase in body size, a process that involves synthesis of complex molecules. Examples of anabolic processes include growth and mineralization of bone and increase of muscle mass.

Endocrinologists have traditionally classified hormones as anabolic or catabolic, depending on which part of metabolism they stimulate. The classic anabolic hormones are the anabolic steroids, which stimulate protein synthesis and muscle growth.
Not containing carbon or concerning living things
are inorganic elements that originate from the earths crust, not from plants or animals. They are not broken down, nor do they rearrange during metabolism.