Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The adaption theory
Sister Callista Roy
The enviromental theory
Florence Nighingale
The self care theory
Dorothea Orem
The basic needs theory
Virgina Henderson
Assessment Skills
skills used for interviewing, observing, and examining the client
Caring skills
skills that restore or maintain an individuals health
Comforting skills
skills that convey security and stability during a health related crisis
counseling skills
skills that involve both talking and listening.
the ability to perform an act skillfully
active listening
hearing the content of what the client says as well as unspoken message
the concern and attachment that occur from the close relationship of one human being with another
intuitive awareness of what the client is experiencing
the diagnosis and treatment of human reponses to actual or potential health problems
the body of knowledge unique to a particular subject
feeling as emotionally distraught as the client.
the collection of information
nursing diagnosis
the identification of the exact nature of the problem
the indenification of the desired outcomes
the review of the entire process
carrying out the plan
is a set of actions leading to a particular goal
nursing process
is an organized sequence of problem solving steps used to identify and to manage the health problems of clients. It is accepted standard for clinical practice established by the american nurses association.
critical thinking
a process of objective reasoning or analyzing facts to reach a valid conclusion.
objective data
are observable and measurable facts that are referred to as signs of a disorder.
Ex: weight, temperature, skin color, blood cell count, vomiting, and bleeding.
Subjective data
consists of information that only the client feels and can decribe, and are called symptoms.
Ex: pain, nausea, depression, fatique, anxiety, and loneliness.
data base assessment
initial information about the clients physical, emotional, social, and spiritual health, is lengthy and conprehensive. This is obtained when apon admission and is used for reference for comparing all future data, and provides the evidence used to identify the clients initial problems. This assessment is performed once apon admission.
Focus assessment
information that provides MORE details about specific problems and expands the original data assessment.
EX: if a client tells the nurse that constipation is more often than none, than more questions will be asked in detail, bowel habits, food intake, current medications, etc. this assessment is performed many times through out each shift.
this is the second step in the nursing process. Diagosis results from analyzing the collective data and determing whether they suggest normal or abnormal findings.
Nursing diagnosis
is a health issue that can be prevented, reduced, resolved, or enhanced through independent nursing measures. There are 5 groups of the nursing diagnosis.
1) actual diagnosis
A problem that currently exists.
2) Risk diagnosis
A problem that the client is uniquely at risk for developing.
Syndrome diagnosis
cluster of problems predicted to be present because of an event or situation.
Wellness diagnosis
a health related problem with which a healthy person obtains nursing assistance to maintain or perform at a higher level.
EX: breast feeding
The NANDA list
the ANA has designated the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) as the authoritative organizaton for devleoping and approving nursing diagnosis. NANDA does the incoporating for the nursing diagnosis, makes sure it is up to date on all the changing medical terms, and updates and reviews the list every 2 years. If a clients problem does not fit into the catorgory of NANDA's nusing diagnosis, then it is up to the nurse to use his or her own terminology when stating the nursing diagnosis.
diagnostic statements
contains one of three parts:
1) name of the health realted issue or problem
2) etiology (its cause)
3) signs and symptoms
collaborative problems
are physiologic complications whose treatment requires both nurse and physican prescribed intervention.
collaborative problems nurses are responible and accountable for:
1)correlating medical diagnoses and medical treatment.
2)Documenting the complications at which clients are at risk.
3) making pertinet assessments to detect complications.
4) reporting trends that suggest development of complications.
5) managing the emerging problems with nurse and physican prescried measures
6) evaluation the outcomes.
a change in practice of nursing as it is today was brought about by:
nurses being held accountable and responsible for providing appropiate care according to accepted standards.
which of the following best supports the concept that the nursing process is dynamic?
the health status of any client is constantly changing; the nursing process acts like a continous loop.
Focus assessment
a limited collection of a few specific, related facts.
the nursing process
is within the legal scope of nursing practice.
PC (potential complications)
collaborative problems are identified on the clients plan for care with abbreviations PC, (Potential Complications).
rules of conduct established and enforced by the goverment of a society.
constitutional laws
the founders of the US wrote the countrys first set of formal laws within the framework of the constitute. Protects fundumental rights and freedom of US citizens.
EX: Freedom of speech
statutory Law
identifies local state or federal rules necessary for the public's welfare.
EX: public health ordinances, tax laws, nurse practice acts.
administrative law
develops regulations by which to carry out the mission of a public agency.
EX: state board of nursing which enact and enforce rules as they relate to nurse practice acts.
common law
interprets legal issues based on previous court decisions in similiar cases (legal precedents).
EX: Tarasoff vs. Board regents of university of california (1976) which justifies breaching a clients confindentiality if he or she reveals the idenity of a potential victim or crime.
criminal law
determines the nature of criminal acts that endanger all society.
EX: identifies the differences in first degree and second degree manslaughter, etc.
Civil Law
determines the circumtances and manner in which a person may be compensated for being a victim of another persons action or omission of an action.
EX: dereliction of duty, negligence.
nurse practice act
statute that legally defines the unique role of the nurse and differentiates it from that of other health care practitioners, such as physicians. This is one example of the statutory law.
Board of Nursing
Falls under the administrative law. Each states board of nursing (regulatory agency for managing provisions of a states nuse practice act) has a primary responsiblty to protect the public receiving nursing care within the state, they have a whole set of laws that they have to cover in order for the health care profession to keep their license.
Repiprocity (adminstrative law)
licensure based on evidence of having met licensing criteria in another state. You cannot have a license in one state and work under the same license in a different state. That law falls under the administrative law.
National Practitioner Data Bank
is a computerized resource sponsored by the Office of Health and Human Services that makes information avalable to licensing boards of and health care facilities that hire nurses throughout the nation.
litigation in which one person asserts that an injury, which may be physical, emotional, or finacial, occurred as a consequence of another persons actions or failure to act), a tort implies that a person breached his or her duty to another person.
false inprisonment
if a nurse detains a compentent client from leaving a hospital or any health care setting.
an act in which untrue information harms a persons reputation, its unlawful.
character attack uttered orally in the presence of others.
damaging statements written and read by others.
harm that results because a person did not act resonably.
is professional negligence, which differs from simple negligence. It holds professionals at a higher standard of accountability.
Patients Bill of Rights was prepared by:
The American Medical Association
Incident report
A written account of an unusual event that may cause harm.
The code of Ethics
a list of written statements described ideal behavior for a group of individuals
The Nursing Practice Acts are identified and published by:
The state legislatures
In acute care hospitals medical orders for retraints to be renewed every?
24 hours.
advanced directive
written statement identifying a competent persons wishes concening terminal care. there are 2 types of advanced directives, living will and durable power of attorney for health care.
4 elements that must be proven in a negligence malpractice case
breach of duty
a full balance integration of all aspects of health, it involves physcical, emotional, social, and spiritual. The 4 components are collectively knownn as Holism.
the sum of physical, emotional, social, and spirtual health. Determines how "whole" a person feels.
a state of complete physical, mental and social well being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Maslows Hierarchy of human beings
Physiological needs, need for safety and security, need for love and belonging, need for esteem and self esteem, need for self actualization.
a state of discomfort) results when disease, deterioration, or injury impairs a person health.
(incidence of specific disease, disorder, or injury) refers to the rate or numbers of people affected.
(incidence of deaths) denotes the number of people who have died from a particular disease or condition.
Acute Illenss
(one that comes on suddenly and lasts a short time) many acute illness's are cured. Some lead to long time problems becuase of their sequelae (singlar;sequela;ill effects that result from permanent or progressive organ damage caused by a disease or its treatment.
Chronic illness
one that comes on slowly and last a long time, inceases as people age.
Terminal illness
one in which there is no potential for cure, is one that eventually is fatal. Terinal stage of illness is one in which a erson is approaching death.
Primary illness
one that devlops independently of any other disease.
Secondary illness
dsorder that develops from a pre existing condition.
EX: Pulmonary disease is caused from smoking, this is the primary illness, if a heart attact occurs as a consequence of smoke damaged lung tissue, it is considered a secondary problem.
the disappearance of signs and syptoms associated with a particular disease.
reactivation of a disorder, or one that reverts from a chronic to an acute state, can occur periodically in clients with long standing diseases.
fever of undetemined origin
congenital disorders
those present at birth but which are the result of faulty embryonic development, but cannot be genetically predicted.
Idipathic illness
an illness whose cause is unexplained.
Health care system
network of available health services, involves agencies and institutions where people seek treatment for health problems or assistance with maintaning or pomoting their health.
Primary care
health services provided by the first health care professional or agency a person contacts, usually is given by a family practice physian, nurse practioner, or physicans assistant in an office or clinic.
Secondary care
health services to which primary cargivers refer clients for consultation and additional testing.
Tertiary care
health services provided at hospitals or medical centers where complex technology and specialist are available.
DRG (diagnostic related group
Prospective payment systems.
a classification system used to group clients with similar diagnoses.
Ex: if the cost of a surgery is less than the amount the hospital eats the cost, if the amount is more than the hospital keeps the money.
morbidity refers to
the incidence of a specific disease.
functional nursing
the method of nursing care in which each nurse on a client is assigned to a specific tasks
team nursing
many nursing staff members divide client care and all the work until it is completed
nurse managed care
nursing care that is similar to the principles practiced by a successful buisiness.
functional nursing
is one of the most non practiced method of nursing.
Primary Nurse
is accountable for the clients care even if she/he is off duty.
functional nursing
tends to focus on the tasks to be done than on the client.
how an organism responds to change, requires the use of self protective properties and mechinisms for regulating homeostasis.
chemical messengers synthesized in the neurons, allow communication between nuerons across the synaptic cleft, subsuquently affecting thinking, behavior, and body function.
Central nervous system
composed of the brain and the spinal cord, the brain is divided into the cortex and the subcortex.
considered the higher functioning portion of the brain. it enables people to think, use and understand language, store memories and make decisions
primarly responsible for regulating and maintaing physiolgic activites and promte survival.
Hans Selye
a canadian physican during the 20's devoted much of his life to researching the physiology of the stress response with he called general adaption sydrome.
is the physiology and behavior reponses to disequilibrium. (a disturbance or absence of equilibrium
Physicians Orders for Life Sudtaining Treatment (POLST)
has the authority of a medical order. Must be followed in all facilities where the patient is being treated. It becomes part of their medical record and moves with the patient whereven he goes in the health care system. A POLST is inteneded to clearly and accurately communicate the patients wishes to health care providers and thus eliminate gliches that can lead to unwanted treatment.