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298 Cards in this Set

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Question
Answer
Describe 2 general classifications of asbestos
"1. Serpentine - curly configuration
2. Amphobile asbestos - straight fibers."
What is one member of the serpentine classification of asbestos?
Chrysotile "white asbestos". Has a fiber quality.
What is one member of the amphobile asbestos family?
Crocidolite "blue asbestos". May cause mesothelioma.
What aspect of crocidolite makes it particularly hazardous?
Fibers are very long and narrow. Can travel axially in the air stream and get deep into the lungs.
Name 7 pathological manifestations of asbestos.
"1. Hyaline pleural plaques.
4."
Describe 2 general classifications of asbestos
"1. Serpentine - curly configuration
2. Amphobile asbestos - straight fibers."
What is one member of the serpentine classification of asbestos?
Chrysotile "white asbestos". Has a fiber quality.
What is one member of the amphobile asbestos family?
Crocidolite "blue asbestos". May cause mesothelioma.
What aspect of crocidolite makes it particularly hazardous?
Fibers are very long and narrow. Can travel axially in the air stream and get deep into the lungs.
Name 7 pathological manifestations of asbestos.
"1. Hyaline pleural plaques.
4."
4 ways smoking may exacerbate asbestos.
"1. Impeding mucous ciliary clearance & macrophage activity.
4. Carcinogens from cig. adsorb onto surfaces of asbestos which acts as vehicle to deliver or retain them in lung."
A low dose of asbestos is associated with what condition, regardless of smoking status?
Mesothelioma.
A higher dose of asbestos + smoking causes an increased risk in what condition?
Carcinoma of the lung parenchyma.
A modest level of asbestos is associated with what condition?
Benign pleural changes.
High asbestos exposure is associated with what condition, regardless of smoking?
Asbestosis
What is an Ames test?
Screening test for possible carcinogens using strains of Salmonella Typhimurium that are unable to synthesize histadine.Carcinogen causes mutation that allows it to produce histadine.
What advantage does Ames test offer over animal models?
Allows for testing potential carcinogens outside of animals so that the animals' metabolism will not effect it.
Describe how a chemical test of carcinogens is used?
Test agent's chemical properties are evaluated. i.e. "bay region" of polycyclic molecules.
What is Allergenic Alevolitis (aka Hypersensitivity penumonitis)?
Combined Type 3 (Ab response) and Type 4 (T cell). Some causal agents are Thermophilic Actinomycetes.
Name 3 toxic gases that can cause non-cardiac pulmonary edema.
"1. chlorine
What is pneumoconosis?
Inflammation commonly leading to fibrosis of the lungs caused by the inhalation of dust in various occupations, characterized by pain in chest, cough c little/no expectoration, dyspena, reduced thoracic excursion, cyanosis and fatigue after exertion.
Describe 2 categories of inorganic dusts that can cause pneumoconosis.
"1. Fibrogenic (silica, asbestos, silicates.
What is Simple Coal Workers' Pneumoconioses?
Pneumonoconiosis from accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled coal dust. Silica content produces fibrous nodules. Char by coal dust macules located adjuacent to respiratory broncioles.
What are coal dust macules?
1-2mm diameter aggregates of carbon laden macrophages located adjacent to respiratory bronchioles .
What is silicosis?
"Simple (enlarged hilar lymph nodes surrounded by Ca.
List 6 noxious toxic gases.
"1. Ammonia NH3.
What disease is associated with oxides of nitrogen gases.
Silo Filler's disease, which causes damage to epithelial lining of airway and bronchiolitis obliterans (scarring).
Describe how carbon monoxide inhalation can cause death.
CO binds more avidly c hemoglobin than does oxygen. Hem not avail to bind O2. CO causwes shift in dissociation curve, so taht remaining unbound hemoglobin is prevented from releasing O2 (Left shift).
Describe 8 effects of lead poisoning.
"1.Anemia via -erthrypoieis, +hemolysis, -RBC life span. (Have +ALA excretion in urine due to build of intermediates in hemoglobin synethesis.
Describe a classic microscopic sign of lead exposure.
Basophilic stippling of RBCs (blue-staining stops on RBCs)
What form of taking in metallic Hg is hazardous?
Inhalation.
What form of mercury is most toxic?
Organic (methylated ) mercury. Is soluble and absorable by GI system.
What is the leading cause of neonatal deaths?
Congenital anomalies.
What is the primary cause of chromosomal neonatal deaths?
Trisomy. (15, 16 - the ones that lead to death. Not 21,18,13.
Describe 4 char of Turners syndrome (XO)
"1. fluid in abdomen.
Describe 4 char of triploidy (69 chromosomes)
"(Note; more dangerous if extra set from father).
Describe 4 char of Trisomy 21 (down's syndrome)
"1. palpebral fissure.
4 char of Trisomy 18 (Edward's syndrome)
"1. Cleft lip/palate
Describe the 3 general categories of congenital anomalities in neonates.
"1. Malformation (poor formation, something wrong in embryolic process).
Give an example of malformation + deformation.
Renal agenesis. Malformation causes no kidney; deformation caused by lack of embryonic fluid.
List 6 potential causes of disruption.
"1. Radiation.
List 4 causes of congenital anomalies.
"1. Chromosomal defects.
What distinguishes a dominant single gene defect from a recessive one?
"Dominant - mutation in gene that codes for structural protein (achondroplasia, sickle cell)
Describe characteristics of Meckel syndrome.
"1. Polydactyly
2 examples of multifactorial disorders.
"1. Cleft palate.
6 Laws of Teratogenesis.
"1. Susceptibility depends on genotype.
Describe features of FAS.
"1. Small size.
What is a syndrome?
A recognizable pattern of anomalies which is known or thought to be causally related.
Describe features of DiGeorge Syndrome
"1. Thymic aplasia.
What is a sequence?
A pattern of cascade anomalies that can be explained on the basis of a single initiating event.
What form of taking in metallic Hg is hazardous?
Inhalation.
What form of mercury is most toxic?
Organic (methylated ) mercury. Is soluble and absorable by GI system.
What is the leading cause of neonatal deaths?
Congenital anomalies.
What is the primary cause of chromosomal neonatal deaths?
Trisomy. (15, 16 - the ones that lead to death. Not 21,18,13.
Describe 4 char of Turners syndrome (XO)
"1. fluid in abdomen.
What is Prune Belly Syndrome?
Pattern of cascade anomalities due to defect in posterior urethral valves obstruct the urethra, leading to backup of urine in bladder & kidney.
What is the acronym for the most common association of defects.
"VATER
What is hydrops?
Accumulation of edema in fluid of fetus during intrauterine growth.
Describe causal mechanisms of hydrops?
"1. Congestive heart failure.
Describe 2 general classifications of Hydrops.
"1. Immune (Rh, hemolytic anemia.
Describe 6 potential causes of intrauterine growth retardation.
"1. Placental problems.
What time defines perinatal mortality, postneonatal mortality?
"Perinatal - greater than 20 weeks of gestation to 1st month of life.
list 5 common causes of infant death.
"1. Birth defects.
List causes of perinatal death.
"1. Fetal infection (ascending, maternal hematogenous infection (TORCH), Syphilis, Varicella
Examples of benigan neoplasia in early life.
"Benign tumors -
Examples of malignant neoplasms in early life.
"1. Wilm's Tumor
What factors does the Gompertz approach to aging take into account?
"1. Life Span.
What is the main reason for increasing life expecancy.
Reduction in childhood mortality.
Have maximum life span and the rate of aging changed?
No. max = 120 and rate of aging hasn't changed.
What is the Gompertz equation?
probability of dying = infant death rate + (rate of dying)(time)
What can be said of a disease that doesn't follow the Gompertz relationship?
Then it is not age-related.
What happens to the death curve as you remove attributable events?
Move toward programmed death.
Describe 6 theories of aging.
"1. DNA damage and repair.
Describe how error catastrophe can cause aging?
"Problem with proteins associated with chromosomes lead to genetic abnormality and aberrant protein synthesis & death.
What does trymadine incorporation into DNA measure?
Measure of DNA repair (i.e. unscheduled DNA synthesis).
What enzyme is important in aging?
DNA helicase.
What is the role of SIRT1 in aging?
SIRT1 is a gene product that inhibits Bax, a protein that leads to apoptosis and preventing accumulation of fat.
Effect of caloric restriction on SIRT1?
As calories do down, SIRT1 levels down up. SIRT1 inhibits Bax and therefore limits apoptosis.
Describe 2 ways immunity changes with age.
"1. Less protection against infection.
Describe results of inactivation of growth pathways.
"1. Decrease glucose or insulin-signaling.
Caloric intake, free radical damage & insulin-like peptide are related to?
Oxidative Injury.
Describe a histological change associated with aging.
Lipofusein - derived from mitochondria. Is a marker of aging that has no bearing on cardiac function.
What is distinction between aging vs age-related change?
"Aging is inevitable with age. (loss of position sense).
List 5 neurological consequences of aging.
"1. - central processing.
Describe ways to increase SIRT1.
"1. Quercetin & piceatannol (tea & apples)
Describe
2
2.
Amphobile
What
is
What
is
What
aspect
Name
7
2.
Asbestosis
3.
Mesothelioma
4.
Carcinoma
5.
Carcinoma
6.
Rounded
7.
Benign
Describe
2
2.
Amphobile
What
is
What
is
What
aspect
Name
7
2.
Asbestosis
3.
Mesothelioma
4.
Carcinoma
5.
Carcinoma
6.
Rounded
7.
Benign
4
ways
2.
Increasing
3.
Facilitating
4.
Carcinogens
A
low
A
higher
A
modest
High
asbestos
What
is
What
advantage
Describe
how
What
is
Name
3
2.
phosgene
3.
cadmium"
What
is
Describe
2
2.
Non-Fibrogenic
What
is
What
are
What
is
Acute
(alveoli
List
6
2.
Sulfur
3.
Chlorine.
4.
Nitrogen
5.
Ozone.
6.
Phosgene.COCl2."
What
disease
Describe
how
Describe
8
2.
Reticulocytosis.
3.
Colic.
4.
Renal
5.
CNA
6.
Peripheral
7.
Epiphysis
8.
Lead
Describe
a
What
form
What
form
What
is
What
is
Describe
4
2.
Webbing
3.
Horsehoe
4.
coarctation
(may
be
Describe
4
1.
large
2.
spina
3.
hydrocephalus
4.
syndactly"
Describe
4
2.
simian
3.
wide
4.
little
4
char
2.
Radial
3.
Missing
4.
absent
Describe
the
2.
Deformation.
3.
Disruption.
Give
an
List
6
2.
Chemical/drug.
3.
Metabolic.
4.
Infectious
5.
Immunologic.
6.
Thermodisruptive."
List
4
2.
Single
3.
Environmental
4.
Multifactoria
What
distinguishes
Recessive
-
Describe
characteristics
2.
cystic
3.
cystic
4.
encephaloceles"
2
examples
2.
Neural
6
Laws
2.
Susceptibiity
3.
Cause
4.
Maternal
5.
Manifestations
6.
Manifestations
Describe
features
2.
small
3.
short
4.
Facial
What
is
Describe
features
2.
Deficient
3.
Congenital
What
is
What
form
What
form
What
is
What
is
Describe
4
2.
Webbing
3.
Horsehoe
4.
coarctation
(may
be
What
is
What
is
1.
Vertebral
2.
Anal
3.
T-E
4.
Radial
What
is
Describe
causal
2.
Portal
3.
Lymphatic
4.
Hypoalbuminemia."
Describe
2
2.
Non-immune
Describe
6
2.
Confined
3.
Maternal
4.
Multiple
5.
congenital
6.
congenial
What
time
Postneonatal
-
Infant
death
list
5
2.
Prematurity.
3.
SIDS
4.
Maternal
5.
Accidents."
List
causes
2.
Tumors
Examples
of
Examples
of
2.
Neuroblastoma
What
factors
2.
Probability
3.
Survivorship.
4.
Life
What
is
Have
maximum
What
is
What
can
What
happens
Describe
6
2.
Error
3.
Oxidation
4.
Immunologic
5.
Neuroendocrine.
6.
Programmed
Describe
how
Protein
&
What
does
What
enzyme
What
is
Effect
of
Describe
2
2.
More
Describe
results
2.
Upregulate
3.
Accumulation
4.
Growth
5.
Sexual
6.
Intellectual
7.
Lessened
Caloric
intake,
Describe
a
What
is
Age-related
means
List
5
2.
Maintained
3.
Nigrostriatal
4.
Receptor
5.
Sleep
Describe
ways
2.
Reservatol