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41 Cards in this Set

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What factors facilitated African Nationalism?
1. Colonial Oppression
2. Missonary Churches
3. World War I & II
4. Pan-Africanism
5. League of Nations and United Kingdoms
When was the League of Nations formed?
Why?
Formed in January 1919

formed to prevent a war
What were the league of nation's weakness/failures. Whose idea was it to form?
1. lacked an armed force
2. Inability to get an unanimous vote when needed
3. self interest of "most important"
4. Inability to stop Italy's invasion into Ethiopia.

Woodrow wilson
What was the League of Nations most significant failure?
Inability to stop Italy's invasion into Ethiopia.
Who criticized the league of nations?
What year?
Haile Selassie
1936
What prophetic quote did Haile Selassie say?
Either we have collective security or International lawlessness.
When and where was the united nations founded?
San Francisco in 1945 April-June
What year did the United Nations create the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? What was the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?
In 1948
A document that spelled out an array of rights that all human beings are entitled to to.
What was Article 73?
It was in regarding to self-government.

To take due account of political aspirations of the peoples, and assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions.
What happened at African Independence and After?
the process of decolonization and transfer of power
What is the meaning of decolonization?
the action of changing from colonial to independent status
What period did decolonization take place?
1945-1965
What is the transfer of power?
The actual handing over of political authority and control of the state's bureaucracies and resources to African nationalist leaders and parties.
When did the transfe of power begin in Africa?
1950's
What does the centralization of power mean?
When africans were given majority seats in legislative and new constitution was formed.
When was the new constitution formed in Ghana? (1st)
1946 - First time africans had majority seat in the colony's legislature.
When did massive riots take place? where did they take place? What did the british do?
1948
on the southern part of Gold Coast.
Told commission of Inquiry (composed entirely of Africans) to analyze the problem and recommend a punishment
What year was a colony-wide election held? What also happened in this year?
1951
New Constitution was made.
What were the two political parties that competed in the election (1951)?
Which party won the election? Who was the leader of the CPP.
United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC)
Convention People's Party (CPP)

CPP won the election?
Kwame Nkrumah
In ____(year) _____ was given the title Prime Minister. What new party came about? Whose interests did they represent?
1952 Prime Minister
National Liberation Movement (NLM)
Ashanti people and the north
Election held at _____ what new party was defeated?
1956
NLM
What year did Ghana gain independence from British?
march 5, 1957
What was the rationale for centralization?
Each African country needed to project its national identity and assert its soverignty and independence by honoring its own head of state, and not a foreign monarch, as the highest representative of the new nation.
What is the British Commonwealth?
a loose association of former colonies that had become independant soverign states.
What was the predominate group in Nigeria? What terms were called to setup Nigerias system of control?
North
Regionalism and sepratism
Why was decolonization in Nigeria more difficult?
Because of the Different ethinic groups
What are the three reginal units in Nigeria?
Nort, West, East
What year were regional reforms made in Nigeria? What did reforms do?
1942
introduction of regional assemblies &
brought northerners in mainstream of Nigerian politics
The next reforms of Nigeria occured when? What did it do?
1946
Adjusted the legislative council
The (2nd) constitution was made in? What were the problems with this?
1951
There was no national party and no national agenda (Problems working together)
The (2nd) constitution was made in? What were the problems with this?
1951
There was no national party and no national agenda (Problems working together)
The constitution of 1951 was made in? What were the problems with this?
Ghana
There was no national party and no national agenda (Problems working together)
What were the three regional political parties and what region did they control?
National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) - East
Northern People's Congress (NPC)-North
Action Group (AG) - West
What was the main challenges of the 3 groups?
How to cooperate & govern country of 3 groups.
What problem happened in 1963 (Nigeria)? Which region voted to creat on state? What would they call it?
Nigeria unity began to disintergrate after Independence.
The west voted to create state called "mid-west".
Census of 1964 what were the implications?
results showed the northern nigeria's population had twice the size of other regions.
When was the first military coup in Nigeria?
January 15th, 1966
When did the Nigerian Civil war take place?
May 30th, 1967 - January 2, 1970
What was Biafra's justification for the war?
Biafra authorities maintained that Biafra was their God given right of an oppressed to security, to safety, to justice, self-determination, freedom, peace, and progress.
What were the consequences of the war?
1. Blockade that kept food from going to Biafra side
2. Nigeria remained divided into 12 states
3. Civil War increased power & prestige of the military
What were the problems/challenges at independence?
Popular expectation
Territorial and Ethnic Divisions