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89 Cards in this Set

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WHAT is the 3rd line of defense?
Aquired specific immunity
-B or T cells
Where do B cells mature?
Stay in bone marrow
Where do T cells mature?
Go to the Thymis to mature
Describe the 3rd line of defense
-lag time
-builds up an army of cells
-B &T cells only recognize specific cells
-T-cells direct cell to cell communication
Name some T-cells
-Cytotoxic(CD8)-drect killers
-Helper(CD4) helps other cells do their job better
-suppressed-some cells bring response to a hault
What does the T-cell activation do
-APC-antigen presenting cell-it's the tattle tale, Macrophages
-the cell engulfs something, then it's present with a cell membrane protein associated with an atigen
-better at intracellular
What can't T-cells recognize?
Can't recognize cells, they can only recognize a protein or a carbohydrate
Clonal expansion
Making an army of cells
Antibody-mediated immunity
-recognize whole cells
-must be outside of cells and whole
-viruses hide inside but must move, then B-cells attach
What does plasma do?
makes antibodies
is an antibody
What engulf the cells?
neutrophils and magocytes
What pokes holes into the viruses?
Complement proteins
Are B-cells specific?
Yes they only recognize one
What can antibodies do?
-Activate complements
-attract phagocytes
-cause agglutination
-neutralize toxins or microbes
What is the primary immune response?
-the time it takes to build antibodies
-there is a lag time
-show symtoms and get sick
-the second it responds faster
-memory cells
How do memory cells work?
They recognize the invaders and kill them quickly which keeps you from getting chicken pox twice.
Passive Immunity
-give antibodies from somewhere else
-short-term immunity
Active Immunity
-your body is actively making antibodies
-vaccine is being infected with something
The Utopian Drug
-easily adminstered
-reach and be toxic to to the infectios agents
-non-toxic to humans
-not be degraded fast
What goes into making a drug?
-look into different structure
-look different from metabolism
-cell wall
-prokaryotic-have ribosomes
-1 circular DNA piece in cytoplasm
What are some targets for drug?
-cell wall
-nucleic acid
-protein synthesis
-cell membrane
-enzymes,filia, locomotion
Why are there fewer drugs that have an effect on the cell membrane and nucleic acid?
-they are similar to our own cells
What does antibiotic resistence mean?
when bacteria isn't killed by the antibodies.
How do we get antibiotic resistance?
-by not finishing a perscription
-most cells that are left are anitbiotic resistent then it passes from person to person.
-taking someone else's medicine
-antibiotics in our farm animals
How can we conteract antibiotic resitence?
-don't feed animals antibiotics
-make sure people take all drugs
-give antibiotic in combination
-don't take antibiotics when we don't need them
why is it difficult to make a drug against a virus?
bc they live inside cells and its harder to get in
Why is it difficult to take drugs against fungi, protozoan, or multicellular parasites?
their cells are very similar to ours(except yeast)
-fungi has cell walls
-drugs that work attack our muscles
What is included in Upper respiratory tract?
nose and throat regions
-nose cavity
-external nose
functions of the upper respiratory system?
-condition air
-vioce quality
what parts does the lower respiratory tract include?
-2 bronchi
what are the functions of lower respiratory tract?
-produce sounds
-route food
-exchange gases
-conditioned air
O2 transport
Co2 transport
moving air in, inhale
exhale, moving air out
What are two sets of muscles that help you breath?
rib muscles
What happens during inspiration
-contract muscles
-increase volume
-decrease pressure
What happens during expiration?
-relax the muscles
-decrease volume
-increase pressure
What helps oxygen to transport?
-hemoglobin(found in red blood cells)
-bound to iron
How many hemoglobins are found in 4 oxygen molecules?
1 hemoglobin
Oxygen exchange and transport?
-oxygen binds more when high levels of O2
-neutral pH
-cooler temps
Conditions found in the lungs
Carbon dioxide tranportation??
-hemoglobin (some but very small)
-most as biocarbonate (HCO-3) in plasma
What are some problems associated with the respiratory tract?
-lung cancer
What happens during Bronchitis and Asthma?
-Bronchiles spasm and constrict
What are some cardiorespiratory responses to altitude?
-21% of O2 in the atmosphere
-the air pressure goes down
-decrease in oxygen pressure
-harder to oxygenate blood
What is the influenza (Flu)?
-A virus 3 major types (ABC)
-Antigenic drift and shift(cause immune response)
-Yearly vaccine made of 3 influenza viruses
Bird Flu
-flu found in bird species
-The wild birds don't show symptoms
-could transmit person to person
The common cold
-caused by over 100 viruses
-hard to make a vaccine for
Lung cancer
2nd most common cancer
-13% of diagnosed cancer
-28% of all cancer death
-most deadly cancer
What are the two types of lung cancer?
non-small (80%)
epithelial tissue is affected
Compounds found in cancer
-over 4,000 chemicals
-over 50 known to cause cancer
-many other toxic compounds
Smoking and non-cancer health problems
-bone loss
-heart disease
-bronchitis and emphysema
What types of cancer can you get from smoking?
-lung, oral cavity, pharync, larynx, esophagus, bladder, stomach, cervi, kidney, pancreas, and some leukemia
Smokless tobacco
28-cancer causing agents and nicotine
-increased risk of oral cavity diseases
Second-hand smoke and Environmental Smoke (ES)
-contains over 4,000 chemicals
-increase risk of cancer, cvd, SIDS
What is the peripheral nervous system?
-keeps the brain in contact with everything else
Central nervous system?
brain and spinal cord
What is the protect and support of the CNS?
Boney cases
cebrospinal fluid
shock absorber
What is the blood brain barrier?
-the brains most formidable gatekeeper
-protects the brain by allowing very few things past.
Boney cases
-vertebral collumn
3 connective tissue that form a covering (3 layers)
what parts are included in the cns?
-brain stem
-limbic system
-spinal cord
The brain is composed of what systems?
-brain stem
What is the brain stem?
-reptilian or primative brain
-vital functions such as breathing and heart beat
little or hind brain
-coordination and balance
Limbic system
-emotional brain
-maintains many vital functions
-memory emotions involved with smell
4 f's-feeing, fighting, fleeing, and reproduction
-4 lobes
frontal-conscious thought, speech
controls sensations and voluntary movement
controls automatic functions
What are the two main parts of the autonomic division
sympathetic-stressful times
Parasympathetic-peaceful times
Nervous tissue cells
Neurons-main nervous cell
Neuroglia-small supporting cells
What are the main types of neurons?
How does information move through the 3 types of neurons
insulation on the axon
Schwann cells
type of neurgla
-insulated axons
Node of Ronvior
spaces between the myolin sheath
Saltory conduction
way a nerve impulse is conducted along a myolinated axon
Axon bulbs
In order to cross the gap the electrical impulse must turn into a neurotransmitter
Multiple Sclerosis
-autoimmune disorder
-progressive destruction
What are some symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis
-autoimmune disorder
-progressive destruction of myelin sheath
-results in scerloses
-onset 20-40 years old
Nerve impulse transmission
1.electrical impulse and calcium diffuses into the bulb
2.vesicle with neurotransmitter fuse
3.Neutransmitter binds to cell
4.Cell is electrically stimulated.
What are some other nervous system diseases?
-Madd Cow and VCJD(Human version), CWD
What is shingles?
-form of herpes
-hang out in nerve cells
-usually painful rash(abdomen)
-usually over 50
-fluid filled blisters filled with viruses and can easily spread.
-lack of acetycholine
-frontal lobr and limbic system
-problems with memory, personality, dementia
-tangled neutrons
-amyloid plaques
Mad Cow disease and VCJD
-prion disease
-proteins in nerve cells misfolded
-leads to holes and plaques in the brain
-100% fatal
-normal protein that has denatured(misfolded)