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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
vocal fold length
18-23 millimeters long
where vocal fold vibrates
anterior part, 12-14 millimeters long, tissue runs
vocal fold tissue
runs transversely
false vocal folds
above the true vocal folds, don't vibrate or touch
glottis
space between vocal folds - open or closed
epiglottis
covers airway during swallowing & block food
stratified squamus epithelium
vocal fold cover, layer of skin cells
mucosa
the epithelium - coated in mucous
columnar epithelium
cells arranged in columns
lamina propria
between thyroarytenoid muscle & cover, transitional layer
superficial layer / reinke's space
outermost layer of lamina propria, coupled to epithelium
intermediate layer
mid layer of lamina propria, holds vocal ligament
deep layer
lowest layer closest to thryoartenoid muscle
thyroarytenoid
body of vocal fold, origin - thyroid, insertion - arytenoid
body & cover relationship
cover slides gently in position to body - like skin on back of hand
mucosal wave
vocal fold surface looks to be in a ripple motion
oscillation
vibration of vocal folds, myoelastic-aerodynamic event
bernoulli principle
pressure & flow - if one goes up the other goes down
cycle of oscillation
folds close, air pressure increases, glottis starts to open, glottis continues to open (bottom - top), bernoulli effect, air pressure decreases, glottis closes, repeat
glottal closure & timbre
open - breathy, closed - full
vocal folds & breathiness
partially open - mutational chink
muco-viscoelastic-aerodynamic theory
describes vocal fold vibration
hyoid bone
attached to tongue & larynx & muscles for swallowing
thyroid cartilage
largest, shield-like
superior horns
extend up from posterior of cartilage & connect to hyoid bone
inferior horns
extend down to attac to the cricoid cartilage
cricoid cartilage
2nd largest, forms complete circle, attached to inferior horns w/synovial joints
arytenoid cartilage
2 of them, sit on back of cricoid, synovial joints connect it to cricoid, connecting points to close glottis & vocal folds
trachea
windpipe
thyrohyoid membrane
links hyoid & thyroid - providing a seal & preventing excess movement
conus elasticus
membrane inside of cricoid cartilage - strengthens vocal folds & seals them to airway
aryepiglottic folds
top of larynx, helps pull epiglottis down, vocal resonance - singer's formant
vocal ligament
extend from thyroid cartilage to anterior commissure into arytenoid cartilage
vocal processes
where ligament is inserted
4 actions for phonation
adduction, abduction, stretching folds, fattening folds
adduction
closing the glottis
abduction
opening the glottis
instrinsic laryngeal muscles
inside the layrnx & directly interact w/vocal folds or epiglottis
extrinsic laryngeal muscles
connect to the larynx & raise/lower it for swallowing & articulation
thyroarytenoid muscle
shortens/fattens the fold/lowers pitch, chest voice, antagonist is crycothyroid
thyrovocalis
medial edge of TA muscle
thryomuscularis
the rest of the TA muscle
cricothyroid muscle
2 parts, lengthens/thins the vocal folds, antagonist is thyroarytenoid
pars recta
part of CT muscle that runs vertically
pars oblique
part of CT muscle that runs horizontally
pasaggio
transition spots in the voice, muscle control must be synchronized to keep clear tone
lateral cricothyroid muscle
bring vocal processes together to close anterior part of glottis, antagonist is IA
interarytenoid
closes space in posterior glottis, 2 parts to it, antagonist is LCA
transverse interarytenoids
slides arytenoids together, part of IA muscle
oblique interarytenoids
crisscross behind muscle & into aryepiglottic fold
posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
stops phonation to breathe, open the glottis (abduct), antagonists to LCA, IA & TA
aryepiglottic muscle
pulls down epiglottis to prevent choking, antagonist is thyroepiglottic muscle
thyroepiglottic muscle
pulls down epiglottis to prevent choking, antagonist is aryeppiglotic muscle
laryngeal ventricles
above the true folds, openings, produces mucus, small resonator
phonation
the act of creating sound
onset
vocal folds adduct, breath pressure increased, start of a sound
phonatory threshold pressure
pressure require to overcome resistance of adduction & make vibrate
glottal onset
hard, adduction precedes breath energy
aspirate onset
breathy, breath energy precedes adduction
balanced onset
healthy, adduction & breath go simultaneously
offset
release of a sound, abduct vocal folds, breath pressure decreases
glottal offset
forcefully adducts glottis so air is stopped hard w/a grunt
aspirate offset
vocal folds abducted while air still flows
balanced offset
breath flow stop and abduction occur at once
factors in dynamics
breath pressure, glottal adduction, airflow rate, vocal fold length, vocal fold thickness
intensity control
glottal resistance must increase concurrently w/subglottal air pressure
pitch control
vocal folds must be lengthened or shortened
extrinsic laryngeal musculature
extend their attachments to other physiological structures than larynx, for swallowing
constrictor muscles
3 sets, narrow pharynx, transport food, contricts/lifts pharynx
superior constrictor
narrow pharynx
middle constrictor
narrow pharynx
inferior constrictor
constricts/lifts pharynx
open throat
all tension released from contrictors
laryngeal elevators
lifted directly through an attachment or indirectly by hyoid bone
thyrohyoid
lifts larynx & closes gap between thyroid cartilage & hyoid
muscular tension dysphonia
excess tension leads to chronic breathy sound
paired digastric
raises larynx &/or loweds jaw
stylohyoid
swallowing muscle
mylohyoid
floor of the mouth
geniohyoid
chin to hyoid, drops jaw or raises larynx
hyoglossus
connects tongue to hyoid bone
genioglossus
connects tongue to chin
laryngeal depressors
sternothyroid & omohyoids - posterior/anterior
innervation
connection between brain & various individual parts of body through nervous system
motor nerves
send signals to muscles telling them what to do
vagus nerve
goes through neck into thorax and upper abdomen
superior larngeal nerve
internal supplies mucus, external controls pitch
recurrent laryngeal nerve
left branch & right branch - help vibrato?
aphonia
inability to produce sound