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50 Cards in this Set

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Carbohydrates Always contain ___ and ___ atoms
carbon (C) and hydrogen (H)
Monosaccharides:
simple sugars: glucose (most important), ribose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides: two monosaccharides join
•(lactose=glucose+galactose)
•(sucrose=glucose+fructose)
•(maltose=glucose+glucose)
Polysaccharides- are ____ ( ), ____ ( )and ______ ( )
starch (plants), cellulose (plant structure), glycogen (animals)
Cellulose:
glycogen:
Starch:
Not digestible by humans
digestible
digestible
Lipids:
Contain more energy per gram than other biological molecules and some function well as energy storage mollecules in organisms.
Lipids do not
disolve in water
Lipids contain little _____ and consist mostly of _______ and ______ atoms
oxygen
carbon
hydrogen
Most lipids are found in _____ and _____
• Oils are usually of plant origin
fats and oils
Fats are usually of _______ origin
animal
oils are usally of _____ origin
plant
Fats
Used for long term energy storage
Insulates against heat loss
Forms protective cushion around major organs
Fat is sometimes referred to as a __________.
trigliceride
trigliceride is
3 fatty acids+1 glycerol=trigliceride+water
Steroids are considered lipids because they disolve in lipids.
Steroids are made of ___ fused carbon rings.
4 fused carbon rings

Testosterone, estrogen, cortisone, cholesterol
Fatty acids: is a _____ and ______ chain that ends with the acidic group _____.
carbon hydrogen
COOH
Saturated fatty acids:
have only single covalent bonds because the carbon chain is saturated with all the hydrogens it can hold. This is mostly your lard and buttery
Unsaturated fatty acids:
have double bonds between carbon atoms wherever fewer than two hydrogens are bonded to a carbon atom. Mostly vegetable oils or transfats found in processed foods.
dipeptide=
two amino acids
polypeptide=
many amino acids
Proteins: perform many functions
Are the reason we see and taste things differently is because of different DNA
Protein structures determine the ____ of the molecule and the shape of the molecule determines the ______ of the molecule.
shape, structure
When the protein structure, breaks down through heat, agitation or unstable pH it is said to be ________
denatured
Amino group and acid group join in a _______ bond
peptide
Two amino acids=
dipeptide
Many amino acids in a long chain=
polypeptide
Primary structure:
peptide chain
Secondary structure:
helical winding
Teriary structure
-folding-enzymes
Quaternary structure-
units put together
Two types of nucleic acids
DNA and RNA
DNA
•Stores genetic information in the cell and in the organism.
•Replicates and transmits this information when a cell reproduces and when an organism reproduces.
•Chromosones and genetic information
•Each cell in a human has 23 chromosones from mom and 23 chromosones from dad
•DNA double strand
RNA
•Is an interemediary that conveys DNA’s instructions regarding the amino acid sequence in a protein.
•Tells cell to make proteins that are uniquely you.
•Protein synthesis
•RNA single strand
Nucleotides: are building blocks for ___ and___
DNA and RNA
5 basic nucleotides
TUCAG
DNA
Chromosones
RNA
protein synthesis
ATP
energy molecule
ATP
Nucleotide not a nucleic acid but an energy molecule
• Used for energy
Cells are the fundamental unit of all ______ things
living
All cells come from _____ cells
pre-existing
Cells are small because they need maximum surface area and so they can have _______ _______ _________
selfsustaining chemical reactions
Plasma membrane
Marks the boundary between the inside and outside of the cell
Osmosis:
movement of water across the cell membrane from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration
Isotonic-
Equal concentrations (no movement)
• Hypotonic
water enters cell from water concentration
• Hypertonic-
water leaves cell to lower water concentration
 Diffusion:
movement of solute from high concentration to low concentration (movement of everything else) Passive and require no energy outside the cells own energy.
Endocytosis
membrane around material, bring into cell
Exocytosis
pinches off membrane. Removes out of cell.