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42 Cards in this Set

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isotopes
different forms of the same element with a differnet number of neutrons but are chemically identical
2 types of isotopes
stable and radioactive
how to get the masses of elements from knowing natural abundance and mass of isotopes
natural abundance percentage times real mass
radioactivity
the process by which materials give off rays when they have an unstable nuclear
radioactive decay
the process by which an unstable nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation
what part of the atom undergoes change during radioactive decay and waht happens?
the nucleas-loses energy by emitting radiation
mass of an alpha particle
4 amu
mass of a beta particle
0
mass of a gamma
0
charge of an alpha particle
1+
charge of a beta
1-
chage of a gamma
no charge
penetrating power alpha
low
penetrating power beta
moderate
penetrating power gamma
high
what do all radioactive things end up as?
stable, nonradioactive lead
half life
the amount of time for half of a substance to decay
forward in time
divide by 2
backward in time
multiply by 2
stability vs. potential energy
less stable=more PE
more stable=less PE
what is less stable, the 2 things separately or the thing together plus energy release
separately=less stable
nuclides
isotopes
isotopes of hydrogen
1. 1 over 1 H=protium
2. 2 over 1 H=deuterium
3. 3 over 1 H=tritium
dalton said:
atom was solid, indestructable
what was dalton wrong about?
atom is not indestructable
thompson said
electrons have a negative charge-plum pudding model
rutherford said
atoms have positively charged central nuclear but are mostly empty space
niels bohr said
electrons were found in deinnite orbits around the nucleus , the "planetary" model
what was niels bohr wrong about
electrons are in a cloud
quantum
packet of energy required to boost an electron to a higher energy level
transmutation
alpha particle decay
what does a nuclear power plant contain?
fission reactions
critical mass
the amount of fuel to enable the chain reaction to continue
binding energy
the amount of energy released when a nucleus is gormed from its component particles
fusion
A+B=AB+energy
what produces more energy fusion or fission?
fusion
fission
the splitting of a nuclear into smaller fragments when the nuclei of certain isotopes are bombarded with nuetrons
-nuclear breaks into two fragments when strck by a slow=moving neutron-at the same time, more neutrons are released by the fission-these neutrons strike the nuclei of other atoms, continuing the fission by a chain reaction
chain reaction
some of the nuetrons produced during fission reacct with other fissionable atoms producing more neutron,s whhich react with still more fissionable atoms (dominoes ina pyramid)
how to control fission
energy canbe released more slowly
2 steps to cntrolling it
1. nuclear moderation-reduces the speed of neutrons
2. nuclear absorption-decreases the number of slow moving neutrons to prevent the chain reaction from going to fast
fusion
occurs when nuclei combine to produce a nuclear of great mass
where do fusion reactions take place
at realllllllly high temps