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83 Cards in this Set

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define motor speech disorders and list the 2 reasons invovlved
a collection of communication disorders, resulting from neurologic impairment, involving:
1. the retrieval and activation of motor plans for speech

OR

2. the execution of movements for speech production
Ideation:
communicative intent: cognitive
symbolization: includes... (4)
-word retrieval, phonological mapping, syntactic framing, stress assignment

linguistic (aphasia)
motor planning:
specify movement parameters

apraxia

motor sp. problems
neuromuscular execution: includes...(which muscles? (4)
respiration, phonation, resonance, articutaion

dysarthria

motor
what are the two types of motor speech disorders?
1. dysarthria
2. apraxia of speech
define dysarthria
impaired speech production due to disturbances in the muscular control of the speech mechanism

Problem: actual movement of muscles
what is the origin of dysarthria
-neurologic in origin: associated with pathology of CNS or PNS structures invovled in motor activities
problems found with dysarthria are due to: 3
- paralysis, weakness, incoordination of the speech muscles
dysarthria may result in what kind of speech movement?
speed, sthength, range, timing or accuracy of speech movement
define apraxia
inability to plan movement
define apraxia of speech
a neurogenic speech disorder resulting from inability to program sensorimotor commands for the positioning and movement of muscles for speech production

can occur without weakness and without aphasia

cannot plan to move

problem: doing something on command
what are the two major structures of the central nervous system...they control?
brain- higher centers of control
spinal cord- lower centers; reflex control; provides pathway for CNS to reach PNS
what is the largest portion of the CNS
cerbral hemisphere
describe the cerebral cortex (2)
thin layer of gray matter, high concentration of neuronal cell bodies
describe the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere (2)
tissue underlying cortex, contains interneuron axons
what are the four lobes of the brain
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
what does the brainstem control
respiration, consciousness
what are the three structures of the brainstem
midbrain, pons, medulla
what are the three functions of the brainstem
- passageway b/t cerebrum and SC
- controls integrative and relfexive action
- cranial nerve nuclei in the brainstem
what is the nickname for the cerebellum
"little brain"
what is the important function of the cerebellum
to coordinate voluntary movement. mucles contract with the correct amount of force at the appropriate times.
damage to the cerebellum can cause:
significant deficits in the performance of both gross and skilled motor actions.
list the three basic types of neurons
- motor neurons (efferent)
- sensory (afferent)
- interneurons
function of motor neurons: (2)
- carry neural instruction from the brain to the muscles or glands
- cause contractions in muscles
functions of sensory neurons: (2)
- conduct nerve impulses from a sensory receptor
- delive sensory information to the brain and spinal cord for processing
function of interneurons: (1)
link neurons with other neurons
two characteristics of primary cortices (in general):
- parts of the cerebrum that are dedicated to the analysis of a single type of neural input
- first cortical areas to analyze sensory information
list the four primary cortices
- primary auditory cortex
- primary visual cortex
- primary sensory cortex
- primary motor cortex
primary auditory cortex:
- a.k.a?
- function? (2)
- Heschl's gyrus
- analyzes tone patterns, localizes sounds
Primary visual cortex:
- function?
integrates visual information from both eyes
Primary sensory cortex:
- a.k.a?
- function?
- postcentral gyrus
- receives first neural input about bodily sensation (pressure, touch, pain, temperature)
Primary motor cortex:
- a.k.a?
- receives?
- from here, impulses sent to?
- precentral gyrus
- cortical area that receives planned motor impulses from cortical and subcortical areas
- impulses are then sent down through the brainstem and spinal cord and then to the muscles.
function of association corteces?
areas of cortex that "make sense" of the sensory impulses that have been initially analyzed by the primary cortex
list the four association corteces:
-temporal association cortex
- parietal
- frontal
- occipital
3 functions of parietal association area:
- integrates bodily sensations with visual information
- plays an important role in the control of visually guided movements (eye hand coordination)
- damage may result in difficulty manipulating objects, sensory neglect of half of the body, and certain reading and writing deficits
frontal association cortex:
- located in which cortex?
- has neural connections with?
- receives info about?
- plays an important role in?
- located in prefrontal cortex
- has neural connections with all the lobes of the cerebrum
- receives information on emotion and motivation (limbic system) (desire to move)
- plays an important role in initiating and planning of volitional movements
basal ganglia includes:
caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
lenticular nucleus/ lenticular formation is made of
putamen and globus pallidus
striatum is made of
caudate nucleus and putamen
basal ganglia is especially important in
planning slow, continuous movement
damage of the basal ganglia results in
motor impairment (parkinsons disease) and also in other movment disorders (huntington disease)
the cerebellum helps to regulate (3)
muscle tone, maintain balance, and coordinate skilled motor movements
cerebellum:
- receives neural impulses of...
- receives sensory inpput from...
- integrates..
- adjusts and refines...
- receives neural impulses of intended motor movements from teh association cortex
- also receives sensory input from teh sensory receptors ( visual, tactile, auditory, proprioceptive)
- integrates the motor and sensory information
- adujusts and refines the motor impulses according to the body's immediate circumstances- sends these procesed motor signals to the primary motor cortex via thalamus
the role of the cerebellum is to maintain
equilibrium
the cerebellum coordinates muscle action in both...
stereotyped movement (gait) and non-stereotyped movement (reaching for something)
the cerebellum makes sure muscle contracts how?
at the right time with the right synchrony with others
the cerebellum corrects for? compensates for errors when?
overshooting and undershooting; compensates for errors before they occur
for speech, the cerebellum
allows smooth flow of movement from one articulatory position to the next
what are the 6 cerebellum lesion effects?
1. broad-based, discoordinated gait
2. hypotonia (low muscle tone)
3. decomposition of movement into component parts
4. errors in rate and range of movement (ataxia)
5. dysmetria: patients overshoot or undershoot what they're reaching for
6. intention tremor: tremor that occurs when the patient tries to do something (possibly compesatory for dysmetria)
the thalamus acts as
a relay center for subcortical and cortical structures for sensory and motor information
the thalamus receives
neural inputs of planned motor movements from the basal ganglia and the cerebellum
what converges at the thalamus
sensory information converges at the?
the thalamus uses this information to
further refine the motor impulses from the basal ganglia and cerebellum
the resulting info then distributes to
other parts of the CNS
what are the 2 functions of the limbic system
1. generates emotional and drive-related responses (eat, drink, argue, self- defense etc)
2. may provide a motivational or intentional aspect to communication.
lesion of hte limbic system results in
mutism- no desire to talk
the primary motor cortex receives?
the neural motor impulses that have been processed, smoothed, and coordinated
the neural motor impulses are processed, smoothed and coordinated by the (3)
1. basla ganglia
2. cerebellum
3. thalamus
describe the neurons in the primary motor cortex
have the longest axons in the body
the neurons in the primary motor cortex extend to
lower portions of the spinal cord
the neurons in the primary motor cortex make up
much of the descending motor tract- the pyramidal system
the role of hte primary motor cortex is to:
take voluntary movement patterns that are formulated elsewhere
the role of the primary motor cortex is to transmit:
the voluntary movement patterns to the cranial or spinal nerves via the pyramidal system (a tract of motor neurons)
the primary motor cortex integrates
information from other cortical areas into planned movement
the premotor area and supplementary motor area provide
additional input to the primary motor cortex just before a mvoement is initiated
neural impulses from the PMA (premotor area) and SMA (supllementary motor area) are thought to exert
further control over the final motor signals sent out by the primary motor cortex
impulses from the PMA are thought to be important in?

if damaged then:
visually-guided movements (putting a key in a lock in the dark)

if damaged then and movement becomes clumsy
the SMA is most important in
planning and learning complex, internally generated movements. (thinking about an activity)
the descneding motor tracts are made of
neural pathways that travel from teh cortex to the brainstem and SC
what are the two systems found in the descending motor tracts?
1. pyramidal system
2. extrapyramidal system
the pyramidal system caries
the impulses that control voluntary, fine motor movement at a conscious level
the extrapyramidal system helps:
the pyramidal system to do its job
the extrapyramida system transmits
impulses that control the postural support (of arms, shoulders, back) needed by those fine motro movements at an unconscious and automatic level in its functions
in the pyramidal system, nerve fibers generally take a direct path from the....to the....or the....where they....
nerve fibers generally take a direct path from the primary motor cortex to the brainstem or spinal cord where tehy will synapse with cranial or spinal nerves
the pyramidal system is soemtimes called the
direct activation system
fibers of the pyramidal system are divided into (2)
corticobulbar tract and corticospinal tract
describe the tract axons take int he corticospinal tract
descend from the cortex through the internal capsule, the brainstem, and into the spinal cord
in the cortiospinal tract, axons terminate in the
spinal cord
in the corticospinal tract, many of the axons synapse with
spinal nerves
axons of the cortical neuron (UMN) pass down tot he level of the
medulla
most corticospinal fibers cross the
midline in the medullary pyramids (pyramidal decussation) then continue down the opposite side into the spinal cord
axons then
synapse with the 2nd neuron (LMN), which runs to the muscles