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43 Cards in this Set

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What are the desired characteristics of a urine container?
-Clean, dry, leak proof
-50 mL size
-Clear plastic - can see
-Sterile
What are 4 types of specimens?
1. First morning
2. Random
3. Clean-voided, mistream/steril
4. 24-hr
Which specimen type is best for routine testing?
First morning
Which specimen type is used for drug screens?
Random
Which specimen type is used for cultures?
clean-voided
What are the testing conditions that must be met for specimens?
-Test done w/in 30 min
-NCCLS w/in 2 hrs
-Reject if over 2hrs at R.T.
How long can a specimen be preserved?
8hrs
What are 7 preservatives?
1. Refrig
2. tablets
3. Formalin
4. Acidification
5. Boric acid
6. Sodium carbonate
7. Tolune
How does refrigeration alter a specimen?
1. Limits: bact growth, loss of cells/casts/glucose, urea.
2. Induces crystal formation
3. Alters tests so warm to RT first.
How does acidification alter a specimen?
pH to 3, preserves formed elements but alters test pH.
How does boric acid alter a specimen?
Preserves protein and cells.
Precipitates crystals.
How does tolune interfere with specimens?
It DOESNT - but it is flammable.
What is another good preservative? Why?
Sodium flouride - b/c it doesn't alter tests, and prevents glycolysis.
What is formalin good for, and what is bad about it?
-Great for urine sediment
-Bad b/c a reducing agent; interferes with
-Glucose
-Blood
-LE
-Cu reduction
What are the specimen requirements for metal analysis?
-Time collection to quantitate
-Solubilize with acid
-use a matrix modifier
What indicates a urinalysis?
-Status of kidney/urinary tract
-Wellness screening
-Screen UTI-risk people
-Metabolic/nonrenal disorders
What 3 things are used in qc of urinalysis?
-Reagent strips
-Refractometer
-Data correlation
How often should QC be run?
Every 24 hrs, once a shift.
OR whenever a new bottle of strix is opened, or lot number.
How to QC the refractometer?
1. With water = 1.000
2. With 5% NaCl = 1.002 +- .001
3. With 9% Sucr = 1.034 +- .001
What are the requirements for spinning and decanting urine?
(vol, speed, time, sedi)
-12 mL
-400 x g
-5 min
-1 mL Sedi (Kova pipette)
What are the 4 types of renal disease indicators?
-appearance
-Spcf gravity
-Chemistries
-Sediment
What 4 things are looked at in appearance?
-Color
-Transparency
-Odor
-Foam
What's indicated by:
-White foam
-Yellow foam
White = protein
Yellow = bilirubin
What is a normal spc. gravity?
1.015 to 1.025
what would a spcf. grav over 1.035 indicate?
X-ray contrast media
which chemistries indicate renal disease?
-Protein
-Blood
-Nitrite
-LE
What should the rxtns be?
-Protein
-Blood
-Nitrite
-LE
Protein = less than 10 mg/dl
Blood = none
Nitrite/LE = none
What is hematuria?
What is hemoglobinuria?
Hematuria = intact RBCs.
Hemoglobinuria = free Hb.
What does Hburia indicate?
Intravascular hemolysis.
What in sediment do we evaluate?
-Cells
-Casts
Crystals.
What cells are usually seen in urine sedi?
Epithelial
What are casts?
Protein matrix, formed around cells, or empty.
What are the general indicators of metabolic disease?
-pH
-Appearance
-Chemistries
What about the appearance indicates metabolic disease?
concentration and pigments.
What pigment makes urine yellow?
Urochrome.
What 4 chemistries indicate metabolic disease?
Glucose
Ketones
Bilirubin
Urobilinogen
What 4 other rare conditions does urinalys help investigate?
-Hemoglobin: intravasc hemolysis
-Myoglobin: trauma/musc wasting
-Ig lite chains: mult. myeloma
-Porphobilinogen: porphyrias
What 4 main characteristics of appearance are evaluated in any urinalysis?
1. Volume
2. Odor
3. Clarity
4. Color
What affects the msmt of volume?
-Only can be done with a 24 hour specimen.
What are 4 types of urine volumes to note?
-Polyuria (>1.5 L per day)
-Oliguria (<400 ml/24 hrs)
-Anuria (no urine at all)
-Nocturia (incd nite output)
What are 5 types of odors, and what causes them?
1. Aromatic from volatile acids
2. Ammoniacal from ammonia
3. Foul from bacterial decomp.
4. Characteristic - foods
5. Fruity from acetone
How do you denote "clarity"?
-Clear
-Turbid
What 6 things make turbid urine?
-3 are amorphous
-3 are cellular
Amorphous: phosphates, carbonates, urates.

Cellular: epith/blood cells, bacteria