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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the desired characteristics of a urine container?
-Clean, dry, leak proof
-50 mL size
-Clear plastic - can see
What are 4 types of specimens?
1. First morning
2. Random
3. Clean-voided, mistream/steril
4. 24-hr
Which specimen type is best for routine testing?
First morning
Which specimen type is used for drug screens?
Which specimen type is used for cultures?
What are the testing conditions that must be met for specimens?
-Test done w/in 30 min
-NCCLS w/in 2 hrs
-Reject if over 2hrs at R.T.
How long can a specimen be preserved?
What are 7 preservatives?
1. Refrig
2. tablets
3. Formalin
4. Acidification
5. Boric acid
6. Sodium carbonate
7. Tolune
How does refrigeration alter a specimen?
1. Limits: bact growth, loss of cells/casts/glucose, urea.
2. Induces crystal formation
3. Alters tests so warm to RT first.
How does acidification alter a specimen?
pH to 3, preserves formed elements but alters test pH.
How does boric acid alter a specimen?
Preserves protein and cells.
Precipitates crystals.
How does tolune interfere with specimens?
It DOESNT - but it is flammable.
What is another good preservative? Why?
Sodium flouride - b/c it doesn't alter tests, and prevents glycolysis.
What is formalin good for, and what is bad about it?
-Great for urine sediment
-Bad b/c a reducing agent; interferes with
-Cu reduction
What are the specimen requirements for metal analysis?
-Time collection to quantitate
-Solubilize with acid
-use a matrix modifier
What indicates a urinalysis?
-Status of kidney/urinary tract
-Wellness screening
-Screen UTI-risk people
-Metabolic/nonrenal disorders
What 3 things are used in qc of urinalysis?
-Reagent strips
-Data correlation
How often should QC be run?
Every 24 hrs, once a shift.
OR whenever a new bottle of strix is opened, or lot number.
How to QC the refractometer?
1. With water = 1.000
2. With 5% NaCl = 1.002 +- .001
3. With 9% Sucr = 1.034 +- .001
What are the requirements for spinning and decanting urine?
(vol, speed, time, sedi)
-12 mL
-400 x g
-5 min
-1 mL Sedi (Kova pipette)
What are the 4 types of renal disease indicators?
-Spcf gravity
What 4 things are looked at in appearance?
What's indicated by:
-White foam
-Yellow foam
White = protein
Yellow = bilirubin
What is a normal spc. gravity?
1.015 to 1.025
what would a spcf. grav over 1.035 indicate?
X-ray contrast media
which chemistries indicate renal disease?
What should the rxtns be?
Protein = less than 10 mg/dl
Blood = none
Nitrite/LE = none
What is hematuria?
What is hemoglobinuria?
Hematuria = intact RBCs.
Hemoglobinuria = free Hb.
What does Hburia indicate?
Intravascular hemolysis.
What in sediment do we evaluate?
What cells are usually seen in urine sedi?
What are casts?
Protein matrix, formed around cells, or empty.
What are the general indicators of metabolic disease?
What about the appearance indicates metabolic disease?
concentration and pigments.
What pigment makes urine yellow?
What 4 chemistries indicate metabolic disease?
What 4 other rare conditions does urinalys help investigate?
-Hemoglobin: intravasc hemolysis
-Myoglobin: trauma/musc wasting
-Ig lite chains: mult. myeloma
-Porphobilinogen: porphyrias
What 4 main characteristics of appearance are evaluated in any urinalysis?
1. Volume
2. Odor
3. Clarity
4. Color
What affects the msmt of volume?
-Only can be done with a 24 hour specimen.
What are 4 types of urine volumes to note?
-Polyuria (>1.5 L per day)
-Oliguria (<400 ml/24 hrs)
-Anuria (no urine at all)
-Nocturia (incd nite output)
What are 5 types of odors, and what causes them?
1. Aromatic from volatile acids
2. Ammoniacal from ammonia
3. Foul from bacterial decomp.
4. Characteristic - foods
5. Fruity from acetone
How do you denote "clarity"?
What 6 things make turbid urine?
-3 are amorphous
-3 are cellular
Amorphous: phosphates, carbonates, urates.

Cellular: epith/blood cells, bacteria