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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a retrovirus that depletes the helper T lymphocytes CD4?
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
What is the definition of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)?
CD4 count less than 200 or history of opportunistic infection
What is a normal CD4 count?
800-1200
What is the MOA of Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors NRTIs?
Interfere with HIV viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, resulting in chain termination and inhibition of viral replication.
What NRTI does not have to be dose adjusted for renal impairment?
Abacavir
What NRTI are dosed based on weight?
didanosine, stavudine, and lamivudine
What are common class toxicities of NRTIs?
Lactic acidosis
Severe hepatomegaly with steatosis
NRTI's are prodrugs requiring what?
2-3 phosphorylations for activation
Why should didanosine and stavudine not be used together during pregnancy?
Increased risk of lactic acidosis and liver damage
What is the MOA on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors NNRTIs?
Bind to reverse transcriptase at a different site than the NRTIs, resulting in inhibition of HIV replication
Zidovudine
Retrovir
Lamivudine
Epivir
Abacavir
Ziagen
Didanosine
Videx EC
Stavudine
Zerit
Zalcitabine
Hivid
Tenofovir
Viread
Emtricitabine
Emtriva
What are the adverse events zidovudine?
bone marrow suppression; GI intolerance
what are the adverse events lamivudine?
Minimal toxicity
What are the AE of abacavir?
hypersensitivity reactions (fatal); symptoms include rash, fever, etc
What are the AE of didanosine?
Pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy
What are the AE of stavudine?
Pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy
what are the AE of zalcitabine?
pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy, stomatitis
What are the AE of tenofovir?
renal insufficiency
What are the AE of emtricitabine?
minimal toxicity
Is efavirenz CI in pregnancy?
Yes
What DI do NNRTIs have?
cyp450 3a4 inducers or inhibitors
Which class inhibit protease which prevents the cleavage of HIV polyproteins and subsequently induces the formation of immature noninfectious viral particles
Protease inhibitors
Which protease inhibitors don't have to be taken with food?
Amprenavir & indinavir
Why should amprenavir and fosamprenavir not be used together?
B/c they are chemically similar
What do atazanavir and indinavir require for absorption?
normal acid levels in the stomach
Which PI is the most potent inhibitor in its class and mostly used for intensification of other PI's
Ritonavir
What do lopinavir/ritonavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir sof gel caps require?
Refrigeration
What are the class toxicities of PI?
Lipodystrophy
Hyperglycemia
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertriglyceridemia
Bleeding in hemophiliacs
Osteonecrosis and avascular necrosis of the hips
Osteopenia and osteoporosis
What should be monitored when using PIs?
Glucose
LFTs
TC (TGD)
GI side effects
S/s of bone pain
All PI's are what?
CYP450-3A4 inhibitors
Efavirenz
Sustiva
Nevirapine
Viramune
Delavirdine
Rescriptor
Kaletra
Lopinavir/ritonavir
Viracept
Nelfiavir
Reyataz
Atazanavir
Fosamprenavir
Lexiva
Amprenavir
Agenerase
Saquinavir
Invarase
Darunavir
Prezista
What is the main AE of nelfinavir?
Diarrhea
What are the PI?
Lopinavir
Ritonavir
Atazanavir
Fosamprenavir
Amprenavir
Saquinavir
Darunavir
Tipranavir
Indanavir
What does Nelfinavir need for absorption?
500 calories of food take after eating
What is the AE of fosamprenavir?
Skin rash
What are the AE of amprenavir?
GI intolerance, skin rash
What are the AE of saquinavir?
GI intolerance, increased LFTs
What are the AE of tipranavir?
Hepatoxicity, skin rash, intracranial hemorrhage
What are the AE of ritonavir?
GI intolerance
Tipranavir
Aptivus
Ritonavir
norvir
Indinavir
Crixivan
What drug in pregnancy can decrease the risk of HIV transmission alone in pregnancy?
Zidovudine
The mother should receive IV during labor and infant for 6 weeks
What should be used in HIV+ women in labor who have had no previous antiretroviral therapy?
Single dose nevirapine at onset of labor
What opportunistic infections require primary prophylaxis in HIV?
PCP, MAC
What is the prophylaxis of PCP?
TMP/SMX
What is the prophylaxis of MAC?
Azithromycin 1200mg QWeek