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77 Cards in this Set

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Which structure sends motor fibers to innervate the muscles of the larynx and pharynx?
Nucleus Ambiguous
Neurons in this structure receive input from the red nucleus and the spinal cord
Olive
This fiber bundle contains cerebellar afferents arising from the spinal cod and brainstem.
Inferior cerebellar peduncle – posteriorly and laterally
What is an example of a general somatic nucleus? And Why?
Hypoglossal nucleus – because they stay midline
Lesion of which structure results in upper motor neuron paralysis?
Pyramids
Axons of neurons within this structure project to the cerebellum
Olivocerebellar Tract
This structure innervates the muscles of the tongue
Hypoglossal nerve
- Which statement describes the fibers that cross in the sensory decussation of the medulla oblongata?
Originate in the nucleus cuneatus and gracilis
Why is the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve not likely to be damaged by a discrete vascular lesion of the ventral medulla?
Because the nucleus is located laterally
Name 5 effects of damage to the right oculomotor nerve.
Eye deviates down & out.
Ptosis.
Shine light on the ipsilateral side – no direct input, but you would have normal indirect pathway.
Mydriasis.
Loss of pupillary light reflex in the right eye when light is shone into the right or left eye, lateral strabismis.
Stroke leading to the Right oculomotor nerve problem and left hemiparesis would be where?
Right basilar region in the midbrain area.
Right Cerebral Peduncle.
Pt. has a meningioma that has begun to compress the anterolateral portion of the mid-cervical spinal cord on the left side. Where do you expect to see a deficit in your pts perception of a pin prick (pain)?
Right Lower Extremity
Describe the effect of right optic nerve damage on the pupillary light reflex?
o Damage to the afferent pathway – input pathway
o Therefore, you would lose both the involved and uninvolved eyes when light is shined into the involved side
o Reflex would be normal though if the light was shined into the uninvolved side
o Absent direct and consensual pupillary light reflex with light shone into right eye
What is not associated with basal ganglia dysfunction
Intention Tremor
Which cranial nerve arises from the preolivary sulcus?
CN 12 - hypoglossal
Which cranial nerves arise from the postolivary sulcus?
CN 9(glossopharyngeal), 10(Vagus) & 11(Spinal Accessory)
What cranial nerve arises from the medulla pons junction?
CN 6 - Abducens & CN 7 - Facial
From where does the vestibulocochlear(VIII) nerve arise?
Cerebellar Pontine Angle
Where does the Trigeminal(V)nerve arise?
Rostral & Laterally from pons
What type of fibers are found in teh Crus Cerebri?
Cortigofugal Fibers
What cranial nerve exits from the Interpeduncular Fossa?
CN 3 - Occulomotor nerve
Where can the Trochlear Nerve (CN 4) be found?
Wraps around the posterior aspect of the brainstem. *only one that comes out of the dorsal aspect of brainstem
What does SO4 LR6 stand for?
Superior Oblique - CN4, Lateral Rectus - CN6
What is the structure that could be called the bridge between the cerebellum, medulla & midbrain?
Pons
What is a common name for the mesencephalon?
Midbrain
Where are the cerebral peduncles located?
Anterolateral portion of midbrain
Where is the rhomboid fossa?
the 4th ventricle
What comes from arcuate nuclei from ventral pyramids?
Stria Medullaris
Name the bumps on the medulla overlying the nuclei gracilis.
Gracile Tubercle
What is the superficial bump on the medulla which overlies nucleus cuneatus (Lateral to the Gracile Tubercle)?
Cuneate Tubercle
What is the hypoglossal trigone?
Surface projection of & overlies hypoglossal nucleus
what is the Vagal Trigone?
Overlies the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve.
What does the facial colliculus overly?
Abducens Nucleus
Fibers from the facial motor fibers wrap around what?
Abducens Nucleus
What is the GENU?
bend where facial fibers bend around
What connects the cerebellum to brainstem?
Cerebellar peduncles
Which is the largest cerebellar peduncle?
Middle
Which is the major output cerebellar peduncle?
Superior
How does the dorsal spinocerebellar tract enter the cerebellum?
through the inferior cerebellar peduncle
What happens when the level of the obex is stimulated?
causes vomitting
What is the spinal tract of the inferior colliculus and what does it do?
Lateral lemniscus... audition & auditory reflex
What is the Superior colliculus important for?
visual info from the retina & visual reflex.
In the Neural Tube what is the the intermediate layer?
gray matter
In the neural tube, what is the outer marginal layer?
White matter
What does the alar plate differentiate into?
Dorsal - sensory - General somatic afferent & general visceral afferent
What does the Basal plate differentiate into?
Ventral - motor - General visceral efferent & General somatic efferent
What is the sulcus limitans?
Separates the alar plate & basal plate in the neural tube
Where is sensory nuclei found?
laterally
Where is motor nuclei found?
medially
GSE
Somatic motor to striated muscle in orbit & tongue
SVE
Branchial Motor - innervate muscles of mastication, or others from face, larynx or pharynx
GVE
Visceral Motor - parasympathetic system - innervating smooth muscles & glands
GVA
visceral sensation from glands & organs - does not normally reach consciousness
GSA
General Sensory - touch, pressure, heat, cold from skin & mucous membranes - mainly thru CN5 (also 7,9 & 10)
SSA
special senses, vestibulocochlear, balance & orientation in space, audition, CN8
What does the Rubrospinal tract do?
Coordinated movement of distal flexors
Nucleus Ambiguous is aka
ventral motor nucleus of vagus
What cranial nerves does the solitary nucleus receive info from?
CN 7,9,10
Rostral portion of solitary nucleus is for what?
taste
Caudal portion of the solitary nucleus is for what?
cardiovascular & respiratory
Pyramids have what kind of fibers?
corticofugal fibers
4 vessels that supply blood to the medulla
anterior spinal artery
posterior spinal artery
vertebral artery
PICA - (posterior inferior cerebellar artery)
Signs of Medial Medullary Syndrome
-deviation of the tongue to same side as problem
-2 pt discrimination, conscious proprioception, position & vibration problems
-paralysis, peresis, weakness, hypertonicity, clonus, hyperactive reflexes
Tracts involved in Medial Medullary Syndrome
Hypoglossal Nucleus
Medial Lemniscus
Corticospinal Tract
Lateral Medullary Syndrome AKA
Wallenberg Syndrome
Where is the lesion in Lateral Medullary Syndrome
lateral portion of the medulla
Symptoms of Lateral MEdullary Syndrome
-deficit of pain & temp on contralateral side
-in FACE deficit of pain & temp on ipsilateral side
-deficit on one side of the palate & deviation to the other side
-hoarse voice, hiccups, difficulty swallowing, deficit in gag reflex
-vertigo nausea vomiting nyst
- ataxia, gait, fall to ipsilateral side
Pons contains which cranial nerve nuclei?
5,6,7,8
SVA
Special Sensory - sensations of taste & smell & serve senses of vision, hearing & balance
Location of Striae Medullares
Separates the medulla from the pons
Function of the cerebellar Peduncles
connect cerebellum to brainstem
What type of info does the Inferior Colliculus contain?
Auditory
What type of info does the Superior Colliculus contain?
Vision
Lateral Lemniscus is what type of info?
auditory info
4 types of Corticofugal fibers (fugal=away from)
-Corticospinal
-Corticobulbar
-corticoreticulobulbar
-corticopontine
Tectospinal Tract function
orients the head & neck
Trapezoid body
auditory info