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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
premises
In science, initial definitions and assumptions
deductive reasoning
Drawing a conclusion from initial definitions and assumptions by means of logical reasoning
probability
The relative probability that an event will occur
disprovability
The idea that a statement can be said to be scientific if someone can clearly state a method or test by which it might be disproved
dependent variable
responding variable
variable
A variable that changes in response to changes in an independent variable; a variable taken as the outcome of one or more other variables
fact
Something that is known based on actual experience and observation
hypothesis
In science, an explanation set forth in a manner that can be tested and is capable of being disproved. A tested hypothesis is accepted until and unless it has been disproved.
independent variable
manipulated variable
inductive reasoning
Drawing a general conclusion from a limited set of specific observations
inference
A conclusion derived by logical reasoning from premises and/or evidence (observations or facts), or (2) a conclusion, based on evidence, arrived at by insight or analogy, rather than derived solely by logical processes
controlled experiment
A controlled experiment is designed to test the effects of independent variables on a dependent variable by changing only one independent variable at a time. For each variable tested, there are two setups (an experiment and a control) that are identical except for the independent variable being tested. Any difference in the outcome (dependent variable) between the experiment and the control can then be attributed to the effects of the independent variable tested
quantitative data
Data that are expressed as numbers or numerical measurements. For example, the wavelengths of specific colors of blue and red light (460 and 650 nanometers, respectively) are quantitative data about the electromagnetic spectrum
observation
Information obtained through one or more of the five senses or through instruments that extend the senses. For example, some remote sensing instruments measure infrared intensity, which we do not see, and convert the measurement into colors, which we do see
operational definitions
Definitions that tell you what you need to look for or do in order to carry out an operation, such as measuring, constructing, or manipulating
qualitative data
Data that are distinguished by qualities or attributes that cannot or are not expressed as quantities. For example, blue and red are qualitative data about the electromagnetic spectrum.
theories
Scientific models that offer broad, fundamental explanations of related phenomena and are supported by consistent and extensive evidence
model
A deliberately simplified explanation, often physical, mathematical, pictorial, or computer-simulated, of complex phenomena or processes
scientific method
A set of systematic methods by which scientists investigate natural phenomena, including gathering data, formulating and testing hypotheses, and developing scientific theories and laws
scientific theory
A grand scheme that relates and explains many observations and is supported by a great deal of evidence, in contrast to a guess, a hypothesis, a prediction, a notion, or a belief
pseudoscientific
Ideas that are claimed to have scientific validity, but are inherently untestable and/or lack empirical support and/or were arrived at through faulty reasoning or poor scientific methodology
experimental controls
A controlled experiment is designed to test the effects of independent variables on a dependent variable by changing only one independent variable at a time. For each variable tested, there are two setups (an experiment and a control) that are identical except for the independent variable being tested. Any difference in the outcome (dependent variable) between the experiment and the control can then be attributed to the effects of the independent variable tested.