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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
population
individuals of a single species that simultaneously occupy the same general area
density
the number of individuals per unit area or volume
dispersion
the pattern of spacing among individuals within the geographical boundaries of the population
mark-recapture method
indirect method and indicator used to estimate population sizes
clumped
the most common patterns of dispersion with the individuals aggregated in patches
grain
relates to the spatial variation or environmental patchiness of individual organisms
uniform
evenly spaced pattern of dispersion resulting from direct interactions between individuals in the population
random
unpredictable and patternless dispersion occuring in the absence of strong attractions or repulsions among individuals of a population
demography
the study of the vital statistics that affect population size
age structure
the relative number of individuals of each age
birthrate or fecundity
the number of offspring produced during a certain amount of time and is the greatest for individuals of intermediate age
death rate
highest in the first year and in old age
generation time
the average span between the birth of individuals and the birth of their offspring
sex ratio
the proportion of individuals of each sex
life tables
approach to determine how long, on average, an individual of a given age could be expected to live
cohort
a group of individuals of the same age
survivorship curve
graphic way of representing some of the data in a life table
life history
made up by the traits that affect an organism's schedule of reproduction and death
semelparity
type of history in which organisms invest most of their energy in growth and development, expend this energy in a single large reproductive effort, and then die
iteroparity
life history adaptation producing fewer offspring at a time over a span of many seasons
zero population growth (ZPG)
occurs when the per capita birthrates and death rates are equal and r equals 0
intrinsic rate of increase
maximum population growth rate
exponential population growth
population increase under intricsic rate of increase
carrying capacity
the maximum population size that a particular environment can support with no net increase or decrease over a relatively long period of time
logistic population growth
a model incorporating the effect of population density on r
k-selected populaitons or equilibrial populations
those that are likely to be living at a density near the limit imposed by their resources
r-selected populations or opportunistic populations
those that are likely to be found in variable environments in which populaiton densities fluctuate or in open habitats where individuals are likely to face little competition
intraspecific competition
the reliance of individuals of the same species on the same limited resources
density-dependent factor
one that intensifies as the population increase in size
density-independent factorss
unrelated to population size and affect the same percentage of individuals regardless of population density