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68 Cards in this Set

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mediated negative feedback in the hypothalamus and AP; Tx for anovulation
clomiphene; acts by inhibiting the action of estrogen on the gonadotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland. "Sensing" low estrogen levels, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release is increased, leading to a higher rate of ovulation and hence pregnancy.
None
Risk of gastric carcinoma with Type A gastritis?
increased
decrease acid secretion leads to _____ secretion of gastrin
increased
acid feedback in gastrin?
low pH-> paracrine secretion somatostatin-> inhibit gastrin secretion
risk factor associated with APKD
berry aneurisms-> subarachnoid hemorrhage
cysts in APKD
hepatic, pancreas, spleen, lung; not clinically relevant
children with AR PKD may develop congenital
hepatic fibrosis with HTN and splenomegaly
epicanthal folds?
downs
Chromonomal abnormality with microcephaly
Trisomy 13 or Patau syndrome
Rocker bottom feet
trisomy 18, Edwards
Webbed neck
Turner syndrome, XO
Fusobacterium in lung, source
anaerobic, oral cavity
form of ductal carcinoma involving skin by direct extension
Paget disease of the breast; ductal carcinoma in situ
tumor of the terminal ductules of the breast; it presents as a poorly circumscribed, rubbery breast mass
invasive lobular tumor
CD4 count with HIV attributable infection, but not an AIDS-defining condition
200-400
full-blown AIDS CD4 count
0-200
full blown AIDS infections
HIV encephalopathy, PCP, Kaposi, Crypto, MAI
young male with left decrease breath sounds and hyperresonant percusion
pneumothorax
pneumothorax chest x-ray
radiolucency (dark area)
decreased breath sounds, hyporesonance
pleural effusion
Yersinia enterocolitica
pediatric diarrhea mini-epidemics
diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, pseudoappendicitis (mesenteric lymphadenitis)
Yersinia enterocolitica
nerve damage in humerus injury-> wrist drop
Radial nerve
innervates flexion of wrist and digits
ulnar n
causes of neonatal viral encephalitis
HSVI, II, CMV
shoulder radial nerve injury?
loss of extension at elbow, wrist and digits, weakened shoulder extension, weakened supination; sensory loss on the posterior arm, forearm and hand
musculocutaneus injury
loss of elbow flexion and weakness in supination and loss of sensation on the lat aspect of forearm
positive dipstick for blood+, no hematuria?
myoglobinuria
places of skeletal syphilis?
nose, palate, skull, tibia
None
thyroid nodule, polygonal cells and amyloid
medullary carcinoma
secretin
secreted in response to H+ and amino acids entering the duodenum-> release HCO3- and inhibitn gastric H+ production
antibiotic leading to maculopapular rash
ampicillin
EBV test
heterophile antibody test
pheo malignancy?
10%
accompanying wernicke's aphasia?
right upper visual field cut (often contain fibers from the LGN-> occipital)
accompanying broca's aphasia
right face hemiparesis
germ tube test
diagnosis of candida
None
CAMP test
Strep agalactiae
Elek test
C. diphtheriae
Weil-Felix test
heterophile for rickettsial disease
Hippel-Landau disease
deletion of VHL gene-> hemangioblastomas of retina, cerebellum, medulla; multiple bilateral renal cell tumors
Tx for Wilson's disease
penicillamine, copper chelating agent
greenish-brown rings around outer edge of the cornea
Kayser-Fleischer rings, wilsons disease
Deferoxamine
chelate iron
Neurosyphilis
paresis: Personality, Afect, hyperactive Reflexes, Eyes (AR pupils), Sensorium deficits, Intellectual decline, Speech deficient
FTA-ABS
anti treponemal, syphilis
Gate theory of pain
inhibitory interneurons in lamina II of cord inhibit pain (after stimulation)
Allodynia
perception of pain after innocuous stimulation of a mechanoreceptor
acetoacetate:b-hydroxybutyrate in DM
decreased, acetoacetate evaporates
inc BUN with nor Cre?
pre-renal azotemia
Pre-renal azotemia Dx?
decrease kidney perfusion, increase urea synthesis
labs in distal urinary obstruction
BUN inc>>>Cre
labs in renal glomerulal disease
BUN inc = Cre inc
labs in renal tubulointerstitial disease
Cre in >> BUN
whooping cough
Bordetella pertussis
Bordet-Gengou media
for Bordatella pertussis
Bordatella Pertussis path
secretes adenylate cyclase + exotoxin inhibiting Gin -> inc cAMP -> respiratory apparatus hyperactivity
ovarian tumor composed of epithelial nests that look like bladder epithelium, ovarian stroma
Brenner tumors
continuous irregular ring of ligament around IVC insertion from liver
anterior and posterior coronary ligaments
fissure to the left of coronary ligaments in the posteroinferior surface of the liver
ligamentum venosum
area where the anterior and posterior reflections of the coronary ligament merge on the inferior part of the posteroinferior surface of the liver
right triangular ligament
outpouching on the left side of the falciform ligament
left triangular ligament
autoimmune attack on hair follicles-> severe total hair loss
alopecia areata
touge thin erythematous border surrounding a shallow ulcerated lesion
aphthous ulcer
common opportunistic infection in burn patients
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
antibiotic resistant orgs by PBP mutation
S. pneumonia, Hflu, Staph aureus, Gonocoocous
resistance mech in pseudomonas
porin mutation
resistance via topoisomerase mutation
E coli and pseudomonas; ciprofloxacin