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58 Cards in this Set

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Why is there macular sparing
the blood supply to the most posterior part of the occipital cortex, where the macula is represented, is bilaterally redundant
Ophtalmic artery occlusion effect?
monocular blindness
strabismus with the affected eye primarly pointed down and outwards on primary gaze
Posterior communicating artery aneurism-> CNIII palsy
Anterior Communicationg artery aneurism, visual defect?
bitemporal hemianopsia
gag reflex efferent/afferent
efferent-> vagus; afferent-> glossopharyngeal
picorna virus; fecal-oral; causes paralysis by infecting alpha motor neurons of anterior horn; malaise, headache, fever, nausea, abdominal pain and sore throat
Platysma innervation
facial n
inability to recognize faces; usually by bilateral lesion of the visual association cortex
deficit in cognition about one's illness, or the lack of awareness that one is suffering from a certain condition; related to large lesions of the nondominant parietal lobe, which causes the patient to be confused and unaware of motor and sensory deficits
dissociative disorder not otherwise specified
Ganser syndrome, giving approximate answers instead of exact ones. Most common in prison inmates
Herniation causing mydriasis, lossof the pupillary light reflex and unable to follow flashlight with eyes
temporal lobe under the tentorium (uncal herniation)
tonsillar herniation into foramen magnum Cx
compress medulla-> respiratory failure and death
Path of retinopathy of prematurity
inappropriate proliferation of vessels in the inner layers of the retina
Retinal damage due to glaucoma
ganglion cell and optic nerve degeneration
Pigmented epithelium degeneration causes?
retinitis pigmentosa or senile macular degeneration
basilar membrane separates what?
separates scala tympani from scala media
herniation of the brain through bony defect on the skull caused by defective closure of the cranial end of the neural tube
complete failure of fusion of the neural plate associated with malformation of the vertebral arches such that the underdeveloped neural plate is covered only with skin
spina bifida abierta; no mass lesion is present, and the patient typically has major neurologic deficits
intercostal nerve trajectory
anterior ramus-> intervertebral foramen between L and L+1->angle of rib-> lower border of the rib
lateral column tracts
contains corticospinal, rubrospinal, spinocerebellar, spinothalamic
ventral column tracts
anterior corticospinal, tectospinal, spinothalamic
ventral horn tracts
well-circumscribed intracranial neoplasm attached to the dura
neuromuscular disorder with dilated cardiomyopathy
mixed parenchymal and subarachnoid hemorrhage, centered over one cerebral hemisphere
AV malformation
Why lidocaine might not work on an inflammatory abscess area
low pH->lidocaine weak base-> protonation
organisms that can trigger Reiter's syndrome
Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter jejuni, Clamydia trachomatis
Leigh disease
subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy, mitochondial defect
X-linked disease with abnormal lipid metabolism-> demyelination in the CNS
central pontine myelinolysis
demyelination of the pons (especially the basis pontis) seen after overlying rapid correction of hyponatremia
Krabbe disease
AR accumulation of cerebrosides in histiocytes in the CNS
Metachromatic leukodystrophy
AR accumulation of sphingolipids in the CNS and elsewhere
Tay-Sachs Cx
normal at birth, but then begin to suffer from diminished responsiveness, deafness, blindness, loss of neurologic function, and seizures; cherry-red spot on the macula
Hexosaminidase A def
Paget's progression
initial osteoclast> osteoblast, then osteoblast
smear shows only a few, large young platelets, while other cell lines are normal; marrow shows increased megakaryocytes
overexpression bcl-2
follicular lymphoma; it inhibits apoptosis; (14:18) translocation
crew haircut bone lesions
sickle cell, due to bone marrow expansion
translocations in burkitt lymphoma
(8;14), (8:22); (2;8)
small cell lymphoma translocation
most common leukemia in 45 yo
FAB for marrow greater than 30% blasts, of which > 50% are erythroblasts
FAB for marrow greater than 30% blasts, of which > 50% are blasts are myeloblasts and promyelocytes
M2; myeloblastic
FAB for marrow greater than 30% blasts, cells have promyelotic appereance with kidney-shaped nuclei and auer rods
hypergranular promyelocytic leukemia; M3
genetic abnormality in RS cells
somatic hypermutation
nitrogen mustard, primarily used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia and ovarian carcinoma; also hodgkin's and other lymphomas
alkylating agent for metastatatic testicular and ovarian tumors in combination with other agents
cytotoxic agent with alkylating properties, used for metastatic malignant melanoma, refractory Hodgkin's and various sarcomas
antimitotic for Hodgkin's and NHL, choriocarcinoma, lymphosarcoma and neuroblastoma
Bence-Jones proteins
kappa light chains, VkCk
lymph drainage for lateral side of dorsum of the foot
accompany short saphenous vein, drains into lymph nodes behind knee in the popliteal fossa
most lymph drainage of the lower extremity
to the long saphenous vein, with lymph drains into superficial group of the inguinal lymph nodes
most common cause of drug-induced thrombocytopenia
causes of decreased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (3)
sickle cell anemia, polycythemia, CHF
analgesic for someone with PUD and Hx coronary disease
use for piroxicam
RA pain
CD markers present in RS cells
CD30 and CD15
lymphoma with lacunar cells
HL, nodular sclerosis