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79 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Direct attack on a wildland fire
Means working directly on the fire's edge
Indirect attack on a wildland fire
Means a fireline constructed some distance from the fire
Parallel attack on a wildland fire
Means fighting the fire from 6 - 50' away
What are the different types of a direct attack
A direct attack is used on which types of fuels
-Used on lighter fuels, directly on the fires edge
-Flame lengths are less than 4'
-Used on smaller fires, on flanks and rear of large fires
What is a tandem attack
-Forces on one flank
-At least two firefighting resources
-Lead resource knocks down fire, second resource follows up to make sure it stays out
-Very effective on fast moving grass fires where engines can mobile attack
What is a pincer attack
-Simultaneous attack on both flanks
-Resources move towards the head to pinch off the fire
What is a flanking attack
-Similar to a pincer attack, where you put your resources on both flanks
-Used when you want to keep the fire from spreading laterally
-More forces deployed on one flank than the other
-Used to steer the fire to a point where the head can be cut off
What is an envelopment attack
-Suppression action at several points along the fires perimeter
-All occuring at the same time
-Must be well coordinated
-Stopping the spread of hot burning points along the fires edge
Cold trailing defined
-Firefighters working along a partially dead line
-Inspecting for hotspots, improving the existing line, or cutting new line when necessary
What is a low rate of spread
<100 ft/hr
What is a moderate rate of spread
100 to 400 ft/hr
What is a high rate of spread
400 to 1800 ft/hr
What is an extreme rate of spread
>1800 ft/hr
What are the advantages of doing a direct attack
-Minimal area burned
-Firefighters can escape into the burn
-Reduces the possiblity of moving into the crowns
-Eliminates the need to burn our or backfire
What are the advantages of a parallel attack
-Allow you to work close to the fires edge but drop back when intensity increases
- 6-50 feet from the fires edge
-Materials are cast to the unburned side of the line
-Effective when you can combine engine companies, bulldozers, and handcrews ina coordinated attack
-You can cut fireline across pockets and fingers
What are the advantages of an indirect attack
-Can place line along favorable topography
-Takes advantage of natural existing barrieres
-More time is allowed to construct the line
-Line can be constructed in lighter fuels
Tactics based on flame lengths of <4 ft
Fire can be attacked at the head or flanks by FF's with hand tools
Tactics based on flame lengths of 4 to 8 feet
Too intense for direct attack with hand tools. Bulldozers, engines, retardant drops can be effective
Tactics when flame lengths are 8 to 11 feet
Fire may present serious control problems. Control efforts at the head will be ineffective
Tactics when flame lengths are >11 ft
Crowning, spotting, major runs are probable. Control efforts at head are ineffective
Which exposure creates the greatest fire hazard
Southwestern exposures are the most dangerous
Fires will increase twice in speed at a ___ % slope and will double in speed again at a ___ % slope
30, 55
Fuels as classified to their position
-Ground fuels
-Surface fuels
-Aerial fuels
For every ___ degree increase in temperature, the chemical reaction of fire ___ in speed
18 degrees, doubles in speed
In terms of relative humidity, what are the numbers we need to watch out for
30% or less, the fires will burn more freely. 10% or less, extreme fire behavior is possible
What is the best type of anti fire roof covering
Steel tile
What is the best anti fire exterior covering
According to the SJFD prevention handbook, property owners should maintain a "defensible" space around their homes
Clear all flammable vegetation within 30 feet of the structure
Property owners should trim tree limbs that are within ___ feet of high voltage power lines
10 feet
Property owners should cover their chimney with a spark arrestor of ___ " screen when combustibles ground cover is within ___ ft or a combustible roof is within ___ ft
-1/2" screen
-200 ft ground cover
-50 ft of a combustible roof
In terms of clearing flammable vegetation from around your house, (30 ft) what if you live on a slope?
Increase the space to 100 ft if the structure is on a slope
Fire lines:
Wet line
-Constructed of foam or water
-Used to extinguis flam front
-Not considered to be final control line
Fire lines:
Retardant line
-Constructed by airtanker or helo
-Must follow up with ground action
Fire lines: Scratch line
Hasty narrow hand cut line to temporarily stop the spread of the fire
Fire lines: Handline
Fire line constructed with hand tools
Fire lines: Catline
Made with a bulldozer
Fire lines: Hotline
Still has active fire along it
Fire lines: Undercut line
-Constructed on a hillside
-Used when there is a chance of burning material rolling down and crossing the control line
Fire lines: Cold line
Fire line that has been completely controlled
Fire lines: Open lines
A line that still has an open fire front
What is burning out
-Use of fire to remove the unburned fuels between the fire's edge and the control line
-Used to clean up or straighten the line
-Used to widen natural or existing barriers
What is backfiring
-Used to control or turn a high intensity fire front that will overrun fire lines if it can't be slowed or stopped
-The key to a successful backfire - the main fire draws back into it
Wildland fire SIZE UP
-What is the fire behavior and rate of spread
-Is the fire spotting
-What is the size of a fire (an acre is a football field minus one end zone)
-Where did the fire start
-What are the current weather conditions, wind, humidity
-What is the topography
-What are the fuel types
-Are there structures or high value areas being threatened
-Are there any natural or existing barriers
-Are there any special hazards
-What is the fire's potential (30 mins, 1 hour, 2 hours)
-Have enough resources been dispatched
-Are there water resources near by
-Always DC from hydrant after filling tank
Initial actions of wildland firefighting
-Based on size up and continuous observations
-Project where fire will be in 1 hour
-Establish a staging area ASAP
-Think of other resources (dozers, tankers, helos, hand crews, utility, PD etc)
Mobile attack using an engine
-Drive along the edge of the fire, FF walks ahead of the engine putting out fire as you move
-Utilize a direct attack method
-Utilize water or foam
-Use only when fuels are light and topography allows the engine to move
-Engine has to have pump and roll capabilities
Mobile tandem attack using engines
-Flanking action that involves 2 or more engines
-Lead engine takes the heat out of the fire
-Second engine is used to follow the first engine, picking up hot spots, and securing the line
-Engines can also leap frog - allows FF's on the lead engine to get a break from heat and smoke
Mobile attack flanking using engines
-Pick anchor, usually the road and start extinguishing
-FF must always be in view of operator
-May work from the green or the black
-Engine moves along the line as fast as the fire is extinguished
-Ensure that all fire is extinguished
Mobile attack pincer using engines
-Both flanks arracked at the same time
-Move up or down the flank in a coordinated effort
Mobile attack envelopment attack using engines
-Fire's perimeter is attacked at several places at once
-Multiple anchor points
-Critical areas are attacked first
-Engines move towards another engine - tying lines together
-This attack must be well coordinated to ensure complete coverage of the line
What is a simple attack
-Layed from the engine to the point on the fire to which you want to apply water
-Once hoseline is in place, water is flowed through the line
SJFD simple how lay
-A continuous connection of hose, one after another
-Initiated by deploying a pre connect
-Continue to extend line by clamping hose with a forestry hose clamp or use the "S" fold crimping method
-Add additional lengths of hose
Progressive hose lay
-Used when mobile attack is not possible
-Laying the hose "progressively" while applying water along the fire's perimeter
-Wyes and tee's at regular intervals - usually 300'
-Water is shut off at the nozzle using a hose clamp
-Lay hose so it won't be burned or ruptured
-Requires several FF's to accomplish
Engine companies have __ pondosa packs
2 packs
Engine tender companies have ___ pondosa packs
4 packs
What is contained in our pondosa packs?
Pack 1 and 2 are identical now:

2 - 100 ft lengths of 1.5" forestry hose
1 - Inline Tee attached to male end of the packs outer most length of hose
What is the procedure to do a progressive hose lay
-Initiate by pulling and extending a 200 ft preconnect 1.5" line
-When fully extended, preconnect is clamped and a 100 ft section of hose from either pack is unrolled and connected
-FF connects nozzle to the added length and continues to fight fire along the fire line
-When that hose is fully extended, hose is again clamped and the remaining length of hose from the first pack is used (1st inline tee is now 300' from the engine and all remaining tee's will be at every 200')
-The FF on the nozzle connects the nozzle to the added length of 1.5" and continues along the fireline
-When fully extended, hose is clamped again and the first length of 1.5" from pack 2 is deployed
-With the last length deployed, there weill be 600' of 1.5" extended with an inline tee at the initial 300', and then every 200' thereafter
Place hose clamps at least ___ from the coupling
What to consider when defending structures from a wildland fire
-Weather conditions
-Fuel type, heavy, light
-How long until structures are threatened
-Access, narrow roads?, dead ends? room for 2 way traffic?
-Water resources - hydrants, alternative sources
-Evacuation necessary?
-Special hazards - Haz mat or explosives in outbuildings?, high voltage transmission lines?, above ground fuel storage tanks?
-Available resources, what has been dispatched? ETA?
Structure triage categories
-Not threatened
-Hopeless/too dangerous to protect
-Those that will be threatened
Hopeless/too dangerous to protect conditions may include
-Fire making sustained runs in live fuel and little or no clearance around structure
-Extreme fire behavior, intensity dictates leaving now or losing escape routes
-Threat lasts longer than water supply
-Over 1/4 of the roof on fire
-Fire inside the structure
Defensible space are homes with STED FURS
-Steel or tile roofs, stucco siding
-Tree limbs at least 10 feet from chimneys
-Enclosed eaves and wire mesh over attic vents
-Dead material cleared 30 ft from structure, and, if on a slope, cleared 100 feet from structure
-Firewood piles at least 25 feet from structure
-Use 4 inch numbers to ID address
-Road at least 20 ft wide
-Slope no more than 15%
Structure protection modes
-Defensive mode: Save as many structures as you can
-Offensive mode: Attack the main fire
-Combination mode: Attack the main fire and protect structures as they become threatened
How many engines per structure when doing structure protection
If structures are within ___ feet, one engine may be able to protect 2 structures
Within 50'
Main points of engine operations for structure protection
-Back in to the driveway
-Locate the garden hose, turn it on, and place in your filler tank
-Shut off gas, leave on electricity if on site pumps are available
-You can drop 2 lines, one to each side of the engine, attach lines to the same side of the engine
-Coil an engine protection line on the hose bed
-Ladder the roof
-Consider using foam
-Close doors and windows on the engine
10 standard firefighting orders are broken down into 3 groups, what are they and what are the orders involved
Fire behavior
-What is the weather doing
-What is the fire doing
-Base all actions on current and expected fire behavior

-ID escape routes and safety zones, MAKE THEM KNOWN
-Post lookouts
-Be alert, calm, clear, and decisive

-Maintain communications with supervisors and adjoining forces
-Give clear instructions
-Maintain control of forces
-Fight fire aggressively but maintain for safety
18 situations that shout watch out!
-Weather is becoming hotter and drier
-In country not seen in daylight
-Link of communication between crew members and supervisor is breached
-Direction of wind changes or speed increases
-Escape to safety zones would be difficult due to terrain and fuel
-Rolling material on a hillside could ignite fuel below you
-Not familiar with the weather and local factors influencing fire behavior
-Escape routes and safety zones NOT identified
-Spot fires occurring frequently across fire line
-Strategy, tactics, and hazards have not been given

-Fire is not scouted and sized up
-Instructions and assignments are not clear
-Recognizing there is unburned fuel between you and the fire
-Everyone cannot see the main fire and not in contact with someone who can
-Line construction is being performed with fire below
-Napping near the fire line
-Establishing a line without a safe anchor point
What is LACES
-Lookouts: most experienced person
-Awareness: know whats happening around you
-Communications: are you in comm wiht lookouts, crew, sups, etc
-Escape routes: Do you have TWO ways of escape? Do your people know where they are?
-Safety zones: have you ID'd safety zones? Do your people know where it is and when to use it
Tier 1 response
2 Wildland engine companies
1 Engine company
1 Engine tender company
2 BC's
all BP groups will be activated
Tier 2 response
-2 wildland engine companies
-2 engine companies
-1 engine tender company
-1 BC's
-Duty chief
-Med 30
-Advise CDF that we are using a majority of our resources - no units available for mutual aid
-Tiers 2 and up, all units respond on SJ fire to staging unless otherwise notified
-Wildland officer notification
-Consult with BC and PSD
-Fuel truck
-Duty mechanic
-Fire associates
-Move ups for wildland engine companies replacing wildland engine companies
-BC needs to be moved up to communications
Tier 3 response
-2 engine companies
-1 BC
-Mutual aid wildland task force: 2 type 4 engines, 2 type 3 engines, 1 water tender, 1 BC
-Request CDF to respond
-Notify city manager
When IC requests assistance to a wildland fire, we call tiered responses - no exceptions
True, but this does not preclude engine companies from requesting engine company assistance
What is the criteria for calling a tier after arriving OS
-Burn index medium to high
-Access difficult
-Temperature has been high for several days
-Homes are threatened
-Smoke column is large and well defined
-Fire is burning into thick and heavy vegetation
-Large fire (>1 acre)
-Off road area involved
-Winds >10 mph
-Slope increasing to >20%
What are the criteria for calling a tier 2
-Two of any tier 1 criteria
-Burn index is HIGH
-Flame length >8 foot on more than 1/3 of fire front
What are the criteria for calling a tier 3
-Three of any tier 1 criteria
-Burn index high in a high fire danger area
-Flame length >8 ft on more than 1/3 of fire front
A simplified way to remember the major criteria for a tier 1 response
-I : fire Index medium or high
-T : Temp 80 degrees or more for 3 days straight
-H : Homes threatened
-AS : Access problems
-200 : 1 acre or more burning (1 acre is approx 200' x 200')
-V : Vegetation - in heavy or moving ot heavy
-O : Off road
-W : Winds 10 mph or greater
-S : Steep slope - >20%
What is a red flag warning
A forecast ussued by the National Weather Service to inform us that conditions are ideal for wildfire ignition. High fire danger and the danger and a rapid spread of VEG fire within 24 hours