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### 49 Cards in this Set

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 Selection of sample objects where an object is returned to the population after selection (and could possibly be chosen again): Sampling With Replacement A single numerical value used as an estimate of a parameter: Point Estimate Collection of all possible elements of interest: Population The probability distribution associated with a statistic: Sampling distribution A probability sampling method where we divide the population into homogeneous strata and take a simple random sample from each strata: Stratified Random Sampling (i.e. the population is divided into a number of parts or 'strata' according to some characteristic) The difference between an unbiased point estimate and the actual value of the parameter being estimated: Sampling error The exactness of an estimator: Precision Selection of sample objects where a sample object is not returned to the population after selection (and cannot possibly be chosen again): Sampling Without Replacement A collection of elements that make up a subset of the population: Sample The standard deviation of a sampling distribution: Standard error What is a biased estimator of population maximum? Sample maximum The sample statistic that provides the point estimate of a parameter: Point Estimator Using data obtained through sampling to estimate the value or test a hypothesis about a parameter: Statistical Inference A probability sampling method where each possible sample of size n chosen from a population of size N has an equal probability of being selected: Simple Random Sampling A summary measure used to describe values of a variable (i.e., a characteristic) for the entire population: Parameter A nonprobability sampling method where elements are selected based on their ease of collection: Convenience (Chunk) Sampling A range of values of a random variable that contain a specified proportion of a population: Tolerance Interval What are the 2 nonprobability sampling methods? 1. Convenience (Chunk) Sampling 2. Judgement Sampling Sample median is a ____ ____ of population median. Biased estimator The correctness of an estimator: Accuracy A probability sampling method where we divide the population into heterogeneous groups (usually by proximity) & take a census from randomly selected groups: Cluster Sampling The probability distribution associated with all possible values of the sample mean: The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean A nonprobability sampling method where elements are selected on the basis of the sampler’s opinion of their appropriateness: Judgement Sampling Collection of values for all the variables of interest that correspond to all the elements of a population: Census A probability sampling method where we randomly select the first element and then subsequently select every kth element: Systematic Sampling State whether the parameter of interest is the mean or the proportion: In a survey, one hundred college students are asked how many hours a week they use the Internet as part of their course work. MEAN - The variable 'hours per week spent on the Internet' is a quantitative variable. State whether the parameter of interest is the mean or the proportion: In a survey, one hundred college students are asked whether they use the Internet for more than 5 hours a week as part of their course work. PROPORTION -The variable 'whether or not a student spends more than five hours' is qualitative (with two categories: Yes or No). What is(are) perfectly precise and almost certainly inaccurate? Point estimators Sampling distributions are probability distributions that are associated w/ a(n) ____. Statistic What is most useful for comparing the dispersion between 2 different variables? Coefficient of variation A range of values of a random variable that contains a specified proportion of a population: Tolerance interval What is the relationship between precision and accuracy? Inverse relationship As the sample size gets sufficiently large, the distribution of our estimate of the mean becomes approximately normal: Central Limit Theorem How do you find the tolerance level? 1-a The distance from the sample statistic to the end of the confidence interval: Margin of error What measure of variation is usually the most sensitive to extreme values? Range When is a statistic a consistent estimator of a parameter? If the probability that it will be close to the parameter's true value approaches 1 with increasing sample size. What is the most appropriate measure of location when calculating the mean annual investment over a number of years? Geometric mean The standard error ↓ as ___ ↑ n ↑ (sample size) What is one way to graphically display the values of more than 2 quantitative variables for each observation in a data set? Star glyph When is the sample mean unbiased? When the expected value of the sample mean is the true population mean E(xbar) = μ What happens to the normal distribution as the sample size gets larger? The distribution gets taller and narrower What measure of variation is generally least sensitive to extreme values? Interquartile range The standard error ↑ as ___ ↑ σ ↑ (population standard deviation) What do we know if the expected value of an estimator is equal to the parameter being estimated? Then we know that the estimator is an UNBIASED estimate of the parameter. The larger the ___ ___, the less reliable is the estimate Standard error When should the finite population correction factor be used? n/N > .05 A researcher is interested in determining the average household income for the New England region of the country. He divides New England into states and then randomly chooses 3 cities from each state to sample. From each city, he randomly chooses 1000 families to survey. This type of sampling is referred to as: Stratified random sampling A researcher chooses every 12th item from an assembly line to include in a process control chart. The sampling technique being used is: Systematic sampling