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### 48 Cards in this Set

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 The value in the middle of the data array: Median The value that is half the distance between the minimum and maximum values in a data set: Midrange What is often used in Olympic scoring to minimize the effects of extreme ratings possibly caused by biased judges? Trimmed Mean What are the 10th, 20th, ..., 100th percentiles known as? Deciles The most frequently occurring value(s) in the data array: Mode The measure of the central location calculated by summing all values in a data set & dividing by the number of summed values: Arithmetic Mean The relative frequency that a characteristic occurs in a data set: Proportion This calculation is used to compute mean growth rates over multiple time periods: Geometric Mean Method of systematically eliminating the most extreme values remaining in a data array until you are left w/ only one or two values: Extreme Value Elimination Method (an easy way to find the median) The arithmetic mean that results after the most extreme (largest and smallest) percentage of values have been eliminated from the data: Trimmed Mean What is the 50th percentile known as? Median The absolute difference between the first and third quartiles in a data set: Interquartile Range (IQR) IQR = Q3 - Q1 The measure of relative dispersion based on the squared distance that the observations in a data set lie from their mean: Variance What are the 20th, 40th, 60th, 80th, 100th percentiles known as? Quintiles The measure of relative dispersion for a data set based on the average distance that the observations in a data set lie from their mean: Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) The absolute difference between the minimum and maximum values in a data set: Range What are the 25th, 50th, 75th, 100th percentiles known as? Quartiles (often denoted Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4) At least 89% of all observations in a data set must be within how many standard deviations of the mean? z = 3 An observation associated w/ an unusually extreme (either small or large) value of a variable: Outlier The measure of relative dispersion that is equal to the positive square root of the variance: Standard Deviation What indicates the direction of skewness in a population? The sign -positive if the population is positively skewed. -negative if the population is negatively skewed. -close to 0 if the population is symmetric. At least 75% of all observations in a data set must be within how many standard deviations of the mean? z = 2 The number of standard deviations an observation (xi) lies from the mean: z-Score Degree to which a data distribution is asymmetric: Skewness The measure of relative dispersion that standardized in relation to its mean: Coefficient of Variation At least 94% of all observations in a data set must be within how many standard deviations of the mean? z = 4 The degree of relative peakedness of a data distribution (and also a measure of the heaviness of the tails of a distribution): Kurtosis Graphical display of the results of a five number summary and outliers: Box Plot The standardized numerical measure of linear association between two quantitative variables: Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Relatively smooth level of kurtosis: Mesokurtic The numerical measure of linear association between two quantitative variables: Covariance Relatively flat with fat tails: Platykurtic What uses the minimum, first quartile (Q1), median (Q2), third quartile (Q3), and maximum to summarize a data set: Five Number Summary Relatively peaked with thin tails: Leptokurtic The standardized numerical measure of linear association between two variables: Correlation What are the 7 numerical measures of location? 1. Midrange 2. Arithmetic Mean 3. Trimmed Mean 4. Geometric Mean 5. Median 6. Mode 7. Percentiles (deciles, quartiles, quintiles) What are the ways to measure the association b/t 2 variables? 1. Covariance 2. Correlation What are the 6 measures of variation/dispersion(population and sample values)? 1. Range 2. Interquartile Range 3. Mean Absolute Deviation 4. Variance 5. Standard Deviation 6. Coefficient of Variation What is the positive square root of the variance? Standard deviation A measure of linear association b/t two variables: Covariance What states that approximately -69% of data will be w/in 1 standard deviation of the mean. -95% will be w/in 2. -99.7% will be w/in 3. The Empirical Rule What indicates how large the standard deviation is in relation to the mean? The coefficient of variation When is it better to use the median rather than the mean as a measure of central location? When the data set contains extreme values. A box plot is a graphical representation of data that is based on: A five-number summary What is an important measure of location for qualitative data? Mode The coefficient of variation indicates how large the standard deviation is relative to what? The mean What states that at least -75% of the items must be w/in 2 standard deviations of the mean. -89% must be w/in 3. -94% must be w/in 4. Chebyshev's Theorem What measure of central location should be used when the data set contains extreme values? Median