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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
AUTOIMMUNITY
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TOLERANCE
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APOPTOSIS
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ANERGY
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EPITOPE SPREADING
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COSTIMULATION
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SUPERANTIGENS
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SINGLE ORGAN VS SYSTEMIC AUTOIMMUNITY
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HASHIMOTO'S THYROIDITIS
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SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus)
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RA (rheumatoid arthritis)
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ENDOCARDITIS (Liebman Sacks type in SLE)
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Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)
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AMYLOID (-OSIS)
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CONGO RED
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ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
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1) What is IMMUNOLOGIC TOLERANCE and what is mechanism for it?

2) What's the difference between central and peripheral tolerance?
1) How IS learns to distinguish self from non-self

2) MECHANISM:
CENTRAL TOLERANCE: clonal deletion and negative selection

PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE: activation induced apoptosis, anergy induction, suppression
How does failure of immunological tolerance lead to autoimmunity? (MECHANISM)
1) Failure of Immunological tolerance leads to autoimmunity because of:
- breakdown of T cell anergy
- failure of acti of induced cell death
- failure of suppression
- molecular mimicry
- polyclonal lymph activation
- release of sequestered antigens
- exposeure of "cryptic" Ag
- epitope spreading
What are characteristics of SLE? (6)
1) Multisystem diseases- many organs affected
2) Affect women > men
3) Criteria for classification
4) Ab against: DNA, histones, proteins on RNA, nucleolar Ags
5) basic staining patterns of patient's serum Abs on nuclei in tissue
6) Genetic factors: multigenic
What is a possible MECHANISM for SLE?

What organ is most affected by SLE?
genes > environment > T cell and B cell stimulation > Ab production > Ab- induced tissue damage

Kidneys are most affected; renal faulure is very common in patients with SLE

Skin, heart, bv, brain, and ct are also affected
What are the characteristics of RA? (4)
1) best known as disease of SYNOVIAL JOINTS, but damages multiple tissues
2) chronic, systemic inflammatory disease
3) Find "RHEUMATOID FACTOR" in most patients which is mostly IgM directed against Fc comp of IgG Ab.
4) In RA, NON SUPPERATIVE inflammation of synovium with T cell, plasma cell, and mac infiltration
5) Synovium proliferates and destroys articular cart
6) formation of PANNUS
What is a possible MECHANISM for RA?
genes > env > t cell and subsequent Bcell stim > Ab production (rheumatoid factor) > t cells and Ab induced damage
What is AMYLOIDOSIS?
It is not an inflammatory disease, but it is beleived that deposition of amyloid is the byproduct of CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY activity agaisnt spectrum of stimuli i nlots of tissue

2) Amyloid referes to PALE PINK, AMORPHOUS material that is deposited in lots of tissue
1) AL

2) AA

3) AB2M

4) AB
1) Myeloma/ B cell tumor- - Ig light chains

2) Reactive/ chronic- - SAA

3) Chronic renal failure- - B2- microgloubulin

4) AS- - Amy Precursor proteins- - encoded on Chr 21
How is amyloid recognized?
It's recognized by BIREFRINGENT (like lens) properties, when congo red stained tissue is viewed through scope under polarized light- - under these conditions it will grow bright apple- green

Because of beta- pleated sheet configuration
How does amyloid cause its damaging effects?
Causes damaging effect by fillinf interstium of the tissue until it blocks, crowds- out, or causes atrophy of adjacent normal structures

Amyloid in the brain (AB) may act like an irritating stimulus inductin chronic activation of mac- like microglia