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198 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What cytokine is good for mucosal immunity?
IL 5
What is a volvulus?
where is it most likely to occur?
in what patients?
when the intestine twists and causes obstruction
In the elderly- most common is the sigmoid colon
in the young- can happen in many other places
The superior cerebellar artery travels near what cranial nerve?
Occulomotor
What would the eye be unable to do if the occulomotor was knocked out?
adduction
loss of the medial rectus muscle
What is the costimulatory interaction in a TB skin test?
B7 and CD28
co-stimulatory
1ry is MHCII and T-cell
What type of inheritance does Huntington's show?
Autosomal Dominant
What type of inheritance is G6PD deficiency?
X-linked
look for heinz bodies
Given the volume of distribution and clearance, calculate half-life.
t/2=(.693xVd)/Cl
What can cause suppurative billiary cholangitis?
complicatoin of roundworm infection:
Ascaris Lumbricoides
Liver Flukes:
Clonorchis sinesis
Fasciola hepatica
What does Enterobius vermicularis cause?
pinworm infection
What does Plasmodium ovale cause?
malaria
What does Taenia solium cause?
pork tapeworm
Taeniasis
larvae cause cysticercosis
What does typanosoma cruzi cause?
chagas
What causes pale poo?
bilirubin
What is the role of IFN-gamma?
development of macrophages to become epitheliod and multi-nucleated giant cells
What is the role of IL1 and TNF-alpha
secreted by macrophages to recruit more leukocytes, locally
produce acute-phase responses- fever, malaise
What is the difference between the native vaginal flora of women with menstral periods and those without?
in those without, skin epithelium is seen. Staph epidermidis
In those of child-bearing age, Lactobacillus, Candida, and strep are seen
How is doxycylcine secreted?
non-renal
Differentiate strep pyogenes and strep pneumoniae
pyogenes- can go to rheumatic fever and golmeruloblah
B-hemolysis and inhibbed by bacitracin

pneumoniae- alpha hemolysis and lysed by optochin
What strep is B-hemolytic and resistant to bacitracin?
Strep agalactiae
In what form does Toxoplasmosa cross the placenta?
as a tachyzoite- part of an acute infection.
What is the difference between a tachyzoite and a bradyzoite?
both are merozoites- daughter parasites.
Tachy- divides fast
Brady- divides slow (not blood borne in toxo)
What treatment should be given to a fibromyalgic patient?
tricyclic anti-depressent
What drugs are good for OCD?
SSRIs
TCA
What infection comes from uncooked pork?
Trichinosis
cysts found in muscle biopsy
What is Bruton's agammaglobulinemia?
x-linked
normal t-cells, diminished b-cells. low antibodies
What is the mechanism of amitriptyline
ihibits reuptake
What disease is caused by Hemophilus ducreyi?
ulcerative genital lesion
painful- gram-negative rod in short chains
What distinguishes the chlamydia chancre from the hemophilus chancre and the syphilis chancre?
pain, chlamydia is painless
syphillis is hard and nontender

Chlamydia- iodine staining intracellular inclusion bodies
What is the role of LFA-1?
binding between monos, t-cells, macros, neutrophils and dendritic cells with injured epithelium

B2 integrin, interacts with ICAM-1
What is the role of ICAM-1?
of the Ig superfamily
binds to LFA-1- for getting to an area of infection (diapedis)
What is the role of CR3?
an integrin, but works more to help move through CT, not exit the blood stream like LFA-1
what is the role of MadCAM-1 and L-selectin?
helps in honing cells to mucosal surfaces
Important in 2ndry immune aggregates of lymphoid cells in the submucosa along the digestive tract and respiratory tree
What is the role of P-selectin and addressins?
complementary molecules found on endothelium and platelets. Believed to contribute to the initiation of the clotting process in an area of acute inflammation but not directly involved in the movement of phagocytes into the tissue spaces
What is a common cause of UTIs in someone with BPH?
E. Coli- gram - rod. obstruction can cause growth.

this can lead to cystitis, sepsis, ARDS
What drugs could cause an increase in effect of warfarin?
Erythromycin
sulfonamides
Norfloxacin

INH
Cimetidine
Ketoconazole
Grapfruit juice
St. John's wart
What drugs can cause gout?
HZT
What vitamin deficiency can occur with chronic anti-bacterial prophylaxis?
Vit. K deficiency
drop in gut flora which produce the K.
What is the mechanism of action of niacin?
blocks VLDL secretion
What is the mechanism of action of Gemfibrozil?
increase activity of LPL- increased clearance of VLDL.
what is the mechanism of action of colchicine?
blocks microtubule assembly-> decrease in inflammation in gout. prevents leukocyte migration and phagocytosis

used in acute gout
What is the mechanism of action of allopurinol?
inhibits xanthine oxidase
from forming uric acid
given 1-2wks after acute gout attack
What is the role of probenecid and sulfinpyrazone in gout?
increases the secretion by increasing the amount peed out.
What is the relationship between gout and aspirin?
aspirin competes with excretion of uric acid, so at OTC doses, can increase uric acid in body. However at high doses can increase excretion.
What is pyridoxine?
Vitamin B6
What is a side effect of INH involving vitamins?
decreases vit. b6-> convulsions and fasiculations
Which pharyngeal arches give rise to arteries the form the Circle of Willis?
3 and 4
3- internal carotids
4- arch of the aorta and subclavian
What are the derivatives of the pharyngeal arches?
1- maxillary artery
2- stapedial artery
3- internal carotids
4- arch of the aorta and subclavian
6- pulmonary arteries and ductus arteriosus
What does a cherry-red spot on fundoscopic exam mean?
Neimann-Pick and Tay-Sachs
Neimann-Pick:
hepatosplenomegaly and progressive neuro deterioration= lipid storage disease
Ashkenazis
sphingomyelin
What is Hunter Syndrome?
x-linked recessive mucopolysaccharoidosis
What is Pompe's Disease?
glycogen storage disease
hypotonia and cardiorespiratory failure
What are the symptoms of Von Gierke's disease?
severe glycogen storage disease
hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, and renomegaly
How is the diagnosis for Mono made?
heterophile Ab test
What is potter syndrome?
No kidneys due to malformation of uteric bud.
flattened facial features
feet deformities
underdeveloped lungs
what is the pronephros?
transient collection of cells in the 4th wk of development
What is the role of Megestrol acetate?
increases appetite
progestational hormone.
anti-neoplastic for breast and endometrium
What is the role of prochlorperazine
phenothiazine- controls nausea and vomiting
What is the antidote for amphetamine OD?
chlorpromazine or haloperidol
what is the role of NH3Cl in amphetamine OD?
helps get rid of it in pee
What is the role of Deferoxamine?
chelates Fe and clears it from the body
What is a major SE of TCAs?
arrhythmia
What is phentolamine?
alpha-receptor blocker
How do TCAs help in parkinsons
They are anticholinergic
In what phase of bacterial growth does anthrax release it's toxin?
stationary phase- when cell growth ceases
What is the defect in a class 5 mutation of the LDL receptor?
Receptor cannot release the LDL in an acidic environment, therefore does not get recycled and is destroyed in the lysosome with the LDL
Where do astrocytes derive from?
neural tube
Where do ependymal cells derive from?
neural tube
Where do oligodendroglia cells derive from?
neural tube
where do microglia derive from?
blood monocytes
where do pseudounipolar cells derive from
neural crest
What is the difference between a Peutz-Jager and a hyperplastic polyp?
hyperplastic- sawtooth crypts, prolif of goblet and columnar epithelial cells
peutz-jager- larger and complex branching pattern
what is bladder prolapse?
is is urinary incontinence based on pelvic floor weakness
What are the SEs of niacin
facial flushing
tachy
hepatotox
hypoalbuminemia
hyperglycemia
nausea
vomiting
hyperuricemia
glucose intolerance
pruritis
peptic ulcer disease
dry skin
What vascular change predisposes you to aortic dissection?
Cystic medial necrosis
What does diabetes predispose you to in the heart?
atherosclerotic aneurysms
What size vessels does polyarteritis nodosa effect
smaller
What heart probs can syphilis cause?
aortic aneurysms
What heart defect does downs predispose you for?
endocardial cushion defect
What vascular defect does adult polycystic disease predispose you to?
berry aneurysm
WHat heart defect is associated w/ turners?
coarctation of the aorta
How do you calculate water deficit?
60% of body is water
weight 75kg
.6*75=45L
compare Na levels
Seminoma
round nests of cells w/ conspicuous nucleoli and clear cytoplasm
fibrous septa w/ numerous lymphocytes
immunoreactive for placental alk phos
Radiosensitive
Choriocarcinoma
recapitulates chorionic villus differentiation;
Embryo cell carcinoma
very undifferentiated- tubular, glandular pattern
Yolk sac tumor
testicular tumor in infancy and early childhood
How does alcohol affect liver metabolism?
enhances p450
hepatocyte SER undergoes hyperplasia
and synthesizes mat ggt
What has alpha-helically coiled M protein?
strep pyogenes
What is contraction alkalosis
Loop diuretics increased salt and water extretion.
fluid is lost, but HCO3 stays behind
Crigler Naijar syndrome
severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
fatal in first year of life
Dubin-Johnson
asymptomatic cause of jaundice
What type of hemolysis and other labs for Strep pneumo
alpha
optochin inhibits
What type of hemolysis and other labs for Strep agalactiae
normal vag and intestine
Group B, beta hemolytic
resistant to bacitracin
What type of hemolysis and other labs for Strep mutans
normal flora
dental caries
alpha; not inhibbed by optochin
What type of hemolysis and other labs for Strep pyogenes
group A
beta-hemolytic
bacitracin
What type of hemolysis and other labs for Strep sanguis
subacute endocarditis
alpha hemolytic; not inhibbed by optochin
What caues preeclampsia before the 20th wk?
hyatidiform mole
Where does the nasal mucosa get its blood supply?
sphenopalatine artery off of the maxillary artery
passes through the sphenopalatine foramen in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
What does the facial artery provide blood to?
branches off the external carotis
superficial face
What does teh superficial temporal artery supply?
terminal branch of the external carotid
lateral portion of the scalp and temporal region
What does the superior labial artery supply?
branch of the facial artery
superior labial -> upper lip;
septal branch that provides to anterior portion of the septal mucosa of the nasal cavity
What does the transverse facial artery supply?
branch of hte superficial temporal- parotid, parotid duct and skin of the lateral face
What protien is part of the junctional complex that is lost in gastric adenocarcinoma and lobular carcinoma of the breast?
E-cadherin
What is the role of connexin?
gap junctions
What si the role of desmoglein?
cadherin in desmosomes
What is transthyretin?
prealbumin- found in cardiac amyloidosis
when do you see amyloid associated protein
underlying chronic inflamm-> 2ry amyloidosis
when do you see amyloid light chains?
Multiple myleoma
When do yous ee B2amyloid
Alzheimers
when do you see B2microglobulin?
long-term hemodialysis
What are the 3 locations of elastic fibers
arteries
vocal cords
ligamenta flava

(Small amounts in skin)
what causes a hydrocele?
incomplete fusion of the processus vaginalis
What causes a spermatocele
communication between teh epididymis and the tunica vaginalis
What would result form no formation of the processus vaginalis?
no tunica vaginalis
What would happen if the processus vaginalis didn't fuse at all?
congenital inguinal hernias
What causes a vericocele?
Varicocities of the spermaticord
What would produce yellow flecks on an IUD?
actinomyces- sulfur granules
ancylostoma duodenale
hookworm that causes anemia
Necator americanus
hookworm
anemia
Ascaris lumbricoides
roundworm; very common. abdominal
Trichuris Trichiuria
rectal prolapse
whipworm
What happens to blood pressure in V-fib?
heart stops, blood moves from high pressure to low pressure
What is the reservoir for HIV in the early stages of infection?
follicular dendritic cells
What is cell reservoid for EBV?
B cell
What is the reservoir for HSV?
ganglion cells
What viruses directly infect the oligodendros
JC
measles
tea color urine
IgA deposits
podocyte effacement
minimal change
nephrotic in kids
subepithelial electorn dense deposits
post-strep glomerulonephritis
thickening of glomerular capillaries
tram-tracking
membranoproliferative
where in the UG diaphragm does the penis attach?
superficial perineal fascia
Where is the deep perineal space
sphincter, urethrae muscle
bulbourethral gland
ischioanal space
space between teh pelvic diaphragm and UG diaphragm
motsly fat
rectovesical space
w/in peritoneal cavity of the male, urinary bladder and rectum
retroperitoneal space
region between teh parietal peritoneum and the endoabdominal fascia. CT, Fat, several organs
superficial perineal space
between teh inferior fascia of the UG diaphragm and superficial perineal fascia
What is the equivalence zone in HBV infection?
the period when Ab and Ag of HBs are being made at the same concentration to get Ag out of the system.

Prozone- Ag excess
Postzone- Ab excess
Serous cystadenoma
cystic structure
rare in kids
what part of strep attracts neutrophils
teichoic acids
capsule attracts Ag
What is dysfunctional uterine bleeding?
irregular intervals causing abnormal uterine bleeding
usually from unopposed Egen stim of the endometrium during anovulatory cycles
What tumor goes along w/ pheos; polygonal cells
C-cells in thyroid
What happens to insulin and glucose in acromegaly?
hyperinsulinemia
decreased glucose tolerance
What is CA-125 a serum marker for?
ovarian
From what part of the brachial plexus does the median nerve arise?
lateral and medial cords
what arises from the lateral cord?
musculocutaneous
what arises from teh middle and lower trunks
nothing
What arises from the upper trunk
subclavius
suprascaplular
what arises from the posterior cord
axillary and radial nerve
What vascular disorder is associated w/ HBV?
Polyarteritis nodosa
What gene is invovled in cystic fibrosis
CFTR protein on 7q31
What is bombesin a tumor marker for
NF
What is S-100 a tumor marker for?
melanoma
neural tumors
astrocytomas
Fusobacterium nucleatum is endemic to what?
oral cavity
What are the features of fetal alcohol syndrome?
craniofacial defects
epicanthal folds, short palpebral fissures, a smooth philthrum, thin upper lip, small teeth, poorly formed ears
mentally retarded, limitation of joint movement, and microcephaly. atrial and ventricular septal defects
What is the effect of maternal lithium
Ebsteins anomaly; tricuspid atresia
what is the effect of maternal thalidomide?
variable cardiac manifestations and phocomelia
what is common variable immunodeficiency?
congenital immune deficiency syndrome;
can't make lymphocytes mature into plasma cells
What are the cysts of entamoeba?
cytoplasm w/ 1,2,4 nuclei
10-20 um
What heart defect is DM associated w/?
transposition of the great arterie
What renal disease is common in IV drug users?
FSGS
what drug causes priapism
trazodone
What drugs do you use for BPH and nasal congestion?
cetirizine
fexofenadine
loratidine
-> low anti-sludg
What does the celiac artery supply?
stomach and proximal small intestine
What CD is used to identify natural killers?
CD56
What are the Sx of serum sickness?
fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias.
Erythema multeforme
What is the relationship between ceflaclor and serum sickness?
higher in kids than adults
What is werner syndrome
MEN I
PTH hyperpalsia-> stones
pancreatic neoplasms-> ZE
Pit adenomas

Sipple- MEN II; medullary thyroid, pheo, parathyroid
Shy-Drager
autoimmune nervous system failure
Turcot syndrome
adenomas of the digestive tract
CNS gliomas
What are these areas most sensitive to?
periportal
pericentral
periportal- toxic injury
pericentral- ischemic
What is hurler syndrome
dwarfism and other skeletal changes
What is the role of the subclavius?
protect subclavian vessels underneath the clavicle
What is the function of the deltoid?
lateral aspect of clavicle- abductor of the arm
What innervates the four heads of the quadracepts?
femoral nerve
What innervates the posterior compartment of the thigh?
sciatic
What innervates the Adductors?
obturator nerve
What is so special about the sweat glands and symps?
the only ACh and not NE.
What causes nail fungus
trichophyton
What does Mucor cause?
sinonasal infection
What is the role of the subscapularis?
Rotator cuff
internal rotation of the arm
what is the role of the infraspinatus
rotator cuff
external rotation
What is the role of the supraspinatus?
rotator cuff
abduction
What is the role of terres minor
rotator cuff
external rotation
Von Gierkes
glycogen storage disease
G-6-P
neonatal hypoglycemia
hyperlipidemia
lactic acidosis
ketosis
failure to thrive
convulsions
liver and kidneys
Does Gaucher's cause hypoglycemia?
NO
Does Niemann-Pick disease cause hypoglycemia
NO
Why do Pompe's and McArdle's primarily affect?
muscle
What type of virus is adenovirus?
DNA, non-enveloped
What type of virus is parvovirus?
DNA, non-enveloped
What type of virus is HCV?
enveloped ss-RNA +
Wht type of virus is polio?
ss-+-RNA naked
What type of virus si Rotavirus
ds-RNA
liver and OCs
liver cell adenoma
Liver and vinyl chloride
angioma
What is the Rx for RSV?
ribavirin
What is Boerhavve's
lower esophageal rupture
follows vomiting and straining
What is Dressler's syndrome
pericarditis after MI
What is Dubin-Johnson
inherited conjugated hyperbili
What is Osler-Web-Rendu disease?
hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, multiple, small aneurysmal telangiectasia. from birth in the skin, oral cavity, alimentary tract, resp tract, urinary tract, liver, brain, spleen.