Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/242

Click to flip

242 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A latex allergy elicits what type of hypersensitivity?
Type 1- immediate, IgE
Type 4- Delayed type, Cell-mediated- contact dermatitis
What organism would likely cause a perforated peptic ulcer?
H. Pylori
What does Cryptosporidium parvum cause?
severe diarrhea in the immunocomprimised
What does Entamoeba histolytica cause?
Dysentary like symptoms or liver abcess
What does E. Coli cause?
Many diarrheal diseases, and can infect soft tissues and bladder
What organism causes fever, severe headache, confusion, swelling of the ankles and wrists and a macupapular rash in the same areas?
Rickettsia Ricketsii
- infects endothelial cells causing vasculitis
- more common in the east
What does Bacillus anthracis cause?
Anthrax, inhalation causes a fatal hemorrhagic mediastinal lymphadenitis
What does Brucella abortis cause?
Brucellosis- chronic disease manifested by fever, night sweats, and weight loss
What does Franscisella tularensis cause?
Tularemia- Arkansas, Missouri; necrotic ulcerative lesion, fevers chills malaise
What does Yersinia Pestis cause?
the plague, Southwest US, from rodents. Enlarged hemorrhagic lymph node near the site of the bite; tightness in the chest.
What organism causes hypotension, confusion, and a bullous rash on the lower extremities after eating oysters?
Oysters- think vibrio
Those with liver disease, renal disease, heme disorders, and a past history of alcoholism are the most at risk for septicemia
What does Aspergillus fumigatus cause?
Mold that attacks wounds and burns of immunocomprimised. Can invade visceral organs like the lung
What does Campylobacter Jejuni cause?
Curved G- rods that cause enterocolitis w/ diarrhea and chronic gastritis (less common)
What does Candida albicans cause?
Opportunistic yeast that is normal flora or resp, gi, and lungs. Causes thrush and vulvovaginitis. May disseminate in the immunocomprimised
What is necrotizing enterocolitis?
Happens often at first feeding of oral food.
in the first few months of life.

Premature, low birth-weight, formula users are more likely due to decreased immunity.

Presents as abdominal distension and tenderness, with sepsis, hypotension, and neutrophilia. Causes gangrene of the terminal ileum and ascending colon. Will pass meconium before being fed.
When would you see a thickening of the pylorus?
Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, vomiting and regurgitation in an older infant.
What is Hirschsprung's Disease?
Congenital megacolon from lack of enteric nervous plexus in segment on biopsy from failure of neural crest cell migration. Chronic constipatioin early in life. Dilated portion of the is proximal to aganglionic segment resulting in a transistion zone.

Can be differentiated from necrotizing enterocolitis by lack of meconium
What would be the clinical sequelae of bowel loops in the chest cavity?
from a congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
Resp distress and death in neonates
What is involved in uridylic acid synthesis?
Aspartate- releases CO2
Carbomoyl phosphate
Glutamine
Glycine
N10-Formyltetrahydrofolate
What Gram + cocci is most likely to cause meningitis in a neonate?
Group B strep
- forms in chains
What cell causes pruritis, urticaria, and mild wheezing w/in 5 min after a bee sting?
Mast cells- type I hypersensitivity early phase. IgE triggers them. (IL 4 causes release of IgE)

Eosinophils (the first thought) enter when brought in by eotaxin. They are late phase.
What is the mechanism of cefuroxime?
cephalosporin- bind to penicillin binding protein
2nd generation - treats resp, uti, otitis media
What infections are common in those with no spleen?
S. pneumoniae, H. influenza, N. Meningitidis. They are encapsulated, and the spleen helps kill them.
What trisomies can you live with?
8, 13, 18, 21
trisomy 16 is not viable
What would a serum marker of c-ANCA indicate?
Wegner's granulomatosis- kidney, lung involvement

anemia, thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, increased IgA, RF, and ESR
When disease is likely to have anti-centromere Abs in the serum?
CREST
When disease is likely to have anti-Ro Abs in the serum?
Also called SS-A Sjorgen's Syndrome
Xerophthalmia (dry eyes), xerostomia (dry mouth), arthritis. Parotid enlargement. Increased risk of B-Cell lymphoma.
When disease is likely to have anti-SS-B Abs in the serum?
Sjorgen's syndrome
Xerophthalmia (dry eyes), xerostomia (dry mouth), arthritis. Parotid enlargement. Increased risk of B-Cell lymphoma.
How does an organism that causes diffuse petechial rash, swollen ankle and knees, tender tendon sheaths, - blood cultures, + chocolate agar culture, keep reinfecting up?
N. Gonorrhea- Pili undergo antigenic and phase variation
What class of drugs cause arthropathy, myalgias, and leg cramps in under 18?
Fluoroquinolones-
Lomefloxacin
What are the side effects of Azithromycin?
mild nausea and ab pain
What are the side effects of Metronidazole?
seizure, peripheral neuropathy
should not be taken with alcohol
What are the side effects of Rifampin?
TB drug
hepatotoxicity, hyperbilirubinemia, porphyria, and cancer.
What are the side effects of Tetracycline?
photosensitivity, pseudotumor cerebri, macupapular rash
What organisms are most likely to cause PID in young women?
Neisseria gonorrhea
Chlamydia trachomatis
Both cause endocytosis by endothelial cells

Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular, cell-mediated immunity, resistant to B-lactams.
Gonorrhea is penicillin resistant due to penicillinase, killed by ceftriaxone
What type of organism is Borrelia burgdorferi?
Spirochete
what are the symptoms of 3ry syphalis?
caused by treponema pallidum
Neuro symps ataxia, wide-based, slapping gate, loss of proprioception.
Degeneration of the dorsal root of the spinal cord
When does E. Coli cause orchitis and epididymitis
kids with congenital genitourinary abnlties and older men.

sexually active - n. gonorrhoeae
What are the associations of the following and the male reproductive tract:
M. tuberculosis
T. Pallidum
Pseudomonas
M. tb- can cause tb of epididymus and teste, granulatioin
Pseudomonas- older men, nospecific cause of epididymitis and orchitis
Treponema- syphilis, testicular involvment with gumma formation, endarteritis, and a prominent plasma cell infiltrate
When would you see a high titer of anti-RNP?
Mixed CT disease
What antibody is high in drug-induced lupus?
Anti-Histone

hydralazine, procainamide
What is Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome? What labs would you find?
X-linked defect in the ability to mount an IgM response to capsular polysaccharides.

Labs- low platelets and Elevated IgA, normal IgE, low IgM

Triad of Sx- WIPE
Wiskott
Infection
Purpura of thrombocytopenia
Eczema
What bacterial pneumonia is common and dangerous in Cystic Fibrosis?
P. Aeruginosa
What the crap is brucella abortus?
chronic granulotmatous disease with caseating granulomas. 4 states- Texas, Cali, Virginia, and Florida

Can cause abortions.
Presents as sweats, fatigue, weakness, and can involve the aortic valve

Veterinarians, ranchers, and carcass handlers
At what T. Cell level is M. Avium common in AIDS patients?
60/microliter
Which of the following can be replicated without a nucleus: Adenovirus, CMV, Influenza, JC virus, Polio
Polio
Adeno, CMV, JC are double stranded DNA viruses
Influenza- is RNA but is replicated in the nucleus
What hepatitis virus has a high mortality among pregnant women?
Hep E.
What is the Arnold-Chiari malformation?
Congenital herniation of hindbrain
Type I- cerebellar tonsils,
Type II- hindbrain, cerebellar vermis, 4th ventricle herniation. meningomyeloceles.
What is a Dandy-Walker malformation?
hypoplasia of cerebellum, enlarged 4th ventricle
What is Holoprosencephaly, Lissencephaly, and Porencephaly?
a complex malformation of the brain so that only a monoventricular hemisphere exists

Smooth brain, no sulci, severe neuro impairment

severe cleft allows communication with the subarachnoid space
Why would Erythromycin and Theophylline be hard to administer together?
Erythromycin blocks CYP450, so Theo is not metabolized as rapidly. OD causes Tachycardia, insomnia, and agitation
What are the roles of the following bacterial enzymes:
Catalase
Hylauronidase
Hemolysin
Streptokinase
Tetanospasmin
Catalase- turns OH into H2O, protects from phagocytosing
Hylauronidase- splits hylauronic acid, Group A strep
Hemolysin- lyse erythrocytes
Streptokinase- plasminogen->plasmin
Tetanospasmin- neurotoxin, inhibs GABA and glycine
What is the etiology of Duchenne's?
Frame-shift mutation-> deletion of dystrophin gene.
What drug is one of the worst for anaerobes?
Ciprofloxacin
What blood values are different in women vs. men?
Hb
transferrin
ferritin
things with iron
What foods lack folate?
Overcooked and old
Folate is very heat labile
What organism causes gas gangrene?
Clostridium perfringens- spore forming anaerobe- necrotic vascular tissue
What is consanguinity
elevates the incidence of a disease in a family, not a community
What factor provides the best explanation for sickle cell in the african american community?
natural selection.
advantage to have sickle cell since it prevents malaria.
What does Spirillium minus cause?
rat-bite fever
What deficiency would increase the risk of infection of encapsulated organisms?
C3 deficiency
appears later in age
When does hyper-IgM present? Old or young?
young, susceptible to pyogenic infections
What is the role of IFN-alpha in infection?
Leukocytes produce to inhibit viral replication
What is the role of IFN-beta in infection?
Product of fibroblasts to inhibit viral replication.
What is the role of IL-2 in infection?
IL-2 is a product of TH cells to cause prolif of other cells.
What is the role of TNF-Alpha in infection?
product of macrophages and nk cells, cytotoxic for tumor cells, causes cachexia.
What is the role of IFN-gamma in infection?
Product of TH1 cells that enhances the killing ablity of Macrophages.
What bacteria cause pneumonia on top of the flu?
S. Aureus- can cause an abscess
S. Pneumoniae- lung abscess is RARE
H. Influenza
Who are more likely to get an infection of Klebsiella pneumonia?
alcoholic, diabetic, COPD
What is a heterotopia?
small areas of tissue in an abnormal site. A gastric heterotopia can occur in the small intestine and can cause peptic ulcer through acid production- one of the few clinically signifcant heterotopias.
Where do you find GLUT 1?
RBCs, kidney, brain microvessels, colon
part of the BBB
Where do you find GLUT 2?
liver, pancreatic beta cells, basolateral small intestine
Where do you find GLUT 3?
Neurons, placenta, testes
Where do you find GLUT 4?
fat, muscle.
Insulin makes it come to the surface
Where do you find GLUT 5?
fructose transporter found in small intestine, sperm, testes.
low levels in kidney, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and brain.
What cells don't need insulin?
BrickL
Brain
RBC
Intestine
Cornea
Kidney
Liver
What are 3 organisms that are not very effectively treated by penicillins and cephalosporins that can cause post-gonococcal urethritis?
Chlamydia
Mycoplasma
Ureaplasma
What organism would cause thick erythematous lesions on the ear and nose, sensory loss, but would not have many acid-fast bacilli?
Tuberculoid leprosy- focused on the face, cooler parts of the body
Lepromatous leprosy- many bacteria, non-granulomatous
What is onchocerciasis?
river blindness, roundworm infection
What is rhinoscleroma?
destructive granulomatous infection of the nasopharynx caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. G- rods can be cultured
Where is the smallpox rash seen?
face and distal extremities
macular/pustular rash
Which lupus antigen can predict nephropathy?
anti-dsDNA
What is Ascaris lumbricoides?
helminth- cylindrical white worm that is LARGE. Fecal-oral, eggs
What worms are capable of autoinfection?
Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia solium- pork tapeworm
What is transmitted via cysts in water?
intestinal protozoa
What worm is transmitted via pets?
larva migrans
what worm is transmitted via mosquito?
filarial nematodes (not in US)
What worm is transmitted via skin penetration?
hookworms, threadworms and schistosomes
What are the side effects of Cefaclor?
Serum-sickness in kids and young adults urticaria, pruritis, morbilliform eruptions, eosinophilia, joint pain, swelling, fever
What are the side effects of Chloramphenicol?
Gray-baby syndrome
What are the side effects of Doxycycline?
fetal bone retardation
fetal liver malfunction
What are the side effects of Procainamide?
drug-induced lupus
What are the side effects of Sulfamethoxazole-Trimeth?
blood dyscrasias especially in elderly, and those with immunosuppression
What is heteroplasmy?
Mitochondria- # of mutated molecules-> severity
What are the effects of AIDS on the brain
multifocal leukoencephalopathy- demylenating disorder by the JC virus (eosinophilic inclusions)
What is a case series study?
detailed info gathered about people believed to have the same illness. for new diseases
A cell in metaphase has how many chromosomes and how many chromatids?
46 chromosomes, 92 chromatids
What virus gives the slapped cheek appearance?
Parvovirus. Adults get arthritis
Fifths disease
What differentiates Staph? Biatracin or Novobiocin?
Novobiocin
What type of disease presents with hypoglycemia and hyperlipidemia?
glycogen storage disease- von Gierkes
What does hexosaminidase A go with?
tay-sachs
What is the only way to confirm HCV infection?
PCR
serum antibodies are not enough
What removes immune complexes from the serum?
C3b
What is chemotactic for neutrophils?
C5a
What does the primitive streak give rise to?
Notochord and mesoderm
What HLA goes with lyme disease arthritis?
HLA-DR4
What is the function of hammerhead ribozymes?
cleave mRNA

catalyze the sequence specific cleavage of RNA phosphodiesters
Deficiency of what AA results in NH3 buildup?
Arginine- part of the urea cycle
What are the phases of bacterial growth?
Lag- metabolic w/o division
acceleration- cell numbers begin to increase
Log- rapid cell division
Stationary- nutrient depletion slows growth
death- prolonged nutrient depletion and buildup of waste products lead to death.
What IL is high in Type I hypersensitivity?
IL 4
What is the role of IL 1?
endogenous pyrogen, acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation
What is the role of IL 2?
cytokine of T-cell proliferation
What is the role of IL 3?
hemopoietic colony stimulating factor
What is the role of IL 5?
eosinophil stimulating factor
What is the role of IL 6?
endogenous pyrogen, stims b-cells, not IgE
What bug likes V and X?
H. Influenza
What bug is visible in dark light?
syphilis
What bug has a waxy envelope?
Mycobaterium- makes it acid fast
What type of receptor is Alpha1?
Gq-protein- PIP2, protein kinase C
What type of receptor is Beta1?
Gs-cAMP, protein kinase A
What type of receptor is D2?
Gi- decreases cAMP, Protein Kinase A
What type of receptor is GABAa?
ligand-gated
What type of receptor is nicotinic?
ligand-gated
What bug is associatd with colon cancer?
S. bovis
What cancer is associated with HHV 8?
Kaposi's sarcoma
What are buzz words for CMV in a newborn
periventricular calcifications and moms with the flu
Which bug is associated with upper lobar pneumonia?
Klebsiella
What G- bacteria are lactose fermenters?
Klebsiella
Escherichia
Enterobacter
What G- bacteria do not ferment lactose?
Shigella
Salmonella
Proteus
Pseudomonas
What is Lancefield grouping used for?
Strep classification
What is the most common manifestation of Toxoplasmosis?
It is usually aquired at a young age and reactivates.
what group of strep grows in bile?
S. agalactiae
What tumor is associated with 22q?
NF-2
What tumor is associated with 5q?
APC tumor suppressor gene of familial colon cancer
What tumor is associated with 13q?
Rb tumor suppressor gene
retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma
What tumor is associated with 17q?
NF-1- p53- many cancers
What tumor is associated with 18q?
DCC gene- colon and gastric carcinomas
DPC gene- pancreatic carcinomas
True or False- there is vomiting associated with E. Coli food poisoning?
False
What is the genetics of G6PD deficiency
X-linked
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy:
What is the disease?
How is it inherited?
acute or subacute vision loss in young men.
mitochondrial inheritance
How is neurofibromatosis inherited?
Autosomal Dominant
Other ADs are:
Ehlers-Danlos
Huntingtons
osteogenesis imperfecta
How is Tay Sachs inherited?
Autosomal recessive
Describe the zona occludens
the tight junction
characterized by sealing strands. interconnecting ridges between two cells. Seal the intercellular clefts from contact with the outside environment.
The toxin of botulism is created in what way?
It is from a viral phage infecting the organism.
The O antigen of Salmonella, Exotoxins of S. pyogenes, and diptheria toxin are also contracted this way
What type of virus is RSV?
- ssRNA
Paramyxovirus
What bacterial toxins are chromosomally encoded?
cholera
endotoxins
How do you differentiate Rotavirus from Norwalk?
Rota <2
Norwalk >2
What has oocysts of 5-7 microns and has watery diarrhea?
cryptosporidiosis- sex phase in the epithelium of intestine of humans

Cyclospora- in jejunal epithelium
When does S. epidermidis cause endocarditis?
prosthetic valves
What immune disorder would present with tetany?
DiGeorge- hypocalcemia
What is decreased alpha-fetoprotein a marker for?
What immune implications does this have?
Downs syndrome
more susceptible to lung infections
What would present with telangiectasias around the eyes?
Think immune
ataxia-telengiectasia syndrome
T-Cell receptor loci
Chromosome 11
What part of the duodenum does the pancreas evolve from?
2nd part
What TORCH virus causes seizure, cranial nerve palsies, and lethargy?
HSV-II
What immune response would be characterized by atopic disease?
Type I hypersensitivity
What immune response would be characterized by cytotoxic disease?
Type II hypersensitivity
DR3
has 3
SLE
DM
Sprue
DR2
has 4, so GOOD it has twice than it should, but working so hard it gets tired and numb.
Goodpasture, MS, nacrolepsy, allergy
DR4
has less than it should, probably because it's duped up on sugar, vulgar, and has joint pain.
DM type I
pemphigus vulgaris
RA
DR5
Has even less than it should probably because it's losing it all as it loses intenstinal cells. And the kids are hindered with arthritis
Pernicious Anemia
Juvenile RA
DR7
the largest DR cause it takes steroids, but has nephrotic syndrome
What is common variable immunodeficiency?
heterogeneous complex of disease- aquired.
comes on with decreased Ab levels.
X-linked will have decreased B-cells
What is adenosine deaminase deficiency?
combined immunodeficiency
will present early in life
When would you see single AA substitutions, what kind of genetic disorder?
Autosomal Recessive
What is a common example of a large gene deletion?
Duchenne's
What is Hungtington's
deteriorating memory
personality changes
hyperactive reflexes
loss of volume of neostriatum and cortex
trinucleotide repeats
What is a substrate for glycoprotein (albumin) synthesis?
Dolichol
What is Arachadonic Acid a precursor for?
Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes
What is Ceramide a precursor for?
gangliosides, galactocerebrosides
What is Dermatan sulfate a precursor for?
proteoglycans
What is hylauronic acid a precursor for?
proteoglycans
What cells kill RBCs?
NK cells
they have no MHCs, so T-cells can't do jack
look for CD56
What CD receptor is on macrophages?
many, but CD14 is an endotoxin receptor
what is the role of CD16?
receptor for IgG
Lymphocytes in the CSF: viral or bacterial?
viral
Neutrophils in the CSF: bacterial or viral?
bacterial
What Dx procedures can be done for Cryptococcus?
India Ink
latex particle agglutination test
Urease +
What bug grows on blood agar next to S. aureus?
H. flu
What is Thayer-Martin agar used for?
Neisseria
When do you see owl's eye inclusions on urine exam?
CMV
What is the ELEK test?
Corynebacterium diptheria
looks for toxin
What is the role of Long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase?
1st step in B-ox of fatty acids
leads to muscle weakness
What does hypoglycemia and hypoketosis indicate?
block in fatty ox
What happens in an alpha-L-Iduronidase deficiency?
deficiency is Hurler disease
lysosomal storage disease- results in cardiomyopathy, valvular defects, occulsion of coronary arteries. Corneal clouding, retard, skeletal abnlties
What happens in a acid maltase deficiency?
acid maltase is a lysosomal enzyme (pompe disease)
glycogen fragments accumulate
What happens in glycogen phosphorylase deficiency?
Mcardle disease
muscle weakness
What type of virus is CMV?
Double-stranded DNA, enveloped, Icosahedral virus
Owl eye
What genetic anomaly gives rocker bottom feet/clubbed feet
trisomy 18 Edwards
What genetic anomaly has cleft palate, scalp defects, and more?
Trisomy 13 Patau
what is the role of DNA gyrase?
negative supercoils to stabalize DNA
What type of virus is Adenovirus?
non-enveloped, icosohedral, DNA virus
conjuntivitis
cause watery, non-bloody diarrhea
swimming pools
What other virus, other than influenza has segmented RNA?
Rotovirus
What is the FTA-ABS a test for?
syphilis
what are the symptoms of neurosyphilis?
paresis
p- personality
a- affect
r- reflexes
e- eye (Argyll Robertson)
s- sensorium
i- intellectual decline
s- speech
True or False: Pneumococcal pneumonia is resistant to Penicillin.
False
What is caused by a deficiency in HGPRT?
Lesch-Nyhan- excessive uric acid production
retard, spasticity
self-mutilation
aggressive behavior
What happens in a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase?
classic phenylketonuria
phenylpyruvate, phenylacetate, phenyllactate accumulate
musty odor, mental retard
What is pleiotropy?
the multiple effects of a gene mutation.
What is the difference between allelic and locus heterogeneity?
locus can be two different chromosomes causing the same thing.
Allelic- happens on the same chromosome
What is a common cause of food poisoning?
campylobacter jejuni
What is the difference between Fructokinase and Fructose-1,6-bisphos deficiency
Fructokinase is mild
F-1,6-bisphos is seen with exposure
What is C-reactive protein?
acute-phase reactant in any inflamm process
What type of infection is someone with a defective chemotactic response be susceptible to?
Chediak-Higashi syndrome
staph and strep
What type of infection is someone with a defective NADPH oxidase be susceptible to?
S. aureus
Aspergillus
Nocardia
Salmonella
What type of infection is someone with a defective C5 be susceptible to?
Nesseria
What type of infection is someone with a defective IgA be susceptible to?
autoimmune
resp infections
milk allergy
What type of infection is someone with a defective thymic dysplasia be susceptible to?
viral
fungal
What part of the ear does pseudomonas usually infect?
outer
What is the function of Cromolyn Na?
stabalizes mast cell membranes
inhib degranulation
What is the function of theophylline?
inhib phosphodiesterase
increases mast cell cAMP (like epinephrine)
decreases degranulation
What immune condition is characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia and repeated infections
Wiskott-Aldrich
What is the confirmation test for HIV?
Western blot
ELISA raises the suspicion
What is the second most likely group for Pneumocystis carinii infection?
Premature infants
What is the mechanism of the 1ry Rx for Candida Albicans causing oral thrush?
Nyastatin- for oral thrush
forms complexes with ergosterol-> membrane leakage
What do you fight to keep chronic rejection from occuring?
T-lymphos
What fungus can cause fungus balls in the lung?
Asperigillus
What are the symptoms of an aminoacidopathy?
first few days of life
feeding difficulties
lethargy
seizures
liver disease
renal disease
coma

isovaleric acidemia- ketoacidosis, hyperglycemia, hyperammonemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia
odor of sweaty feet
What are the common symptoms of carbohydrate metabolism disorder?
hypoglycemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and lactic acidosis

galactosemia- caused by:
inability to metabolize sugars, glycogen synthesis disorders, or disorders of gluconeogenesis
What are the common symptoms of a fatty-ox defect?
hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hyperammonia, and cardiomyopathy
What are the common symptoms of an organic acidemia?
metabolic acidosis
elevated lactate
mild to moderate hyperammonemia
vomiting, encephalopathy, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia
What are the common symptoms of a urea cycle defect?
hyperammonia
respiratory alkalosis
at 24 hrs
What is california encephalitis?
caused by a mosquito.
kids <10
in midwest
How do measles cause neuronal damage?
perivenous microglial encephalitis with demyelination
causes convulsions and loss of conciousness
What virus would cause phagocytosis of the motor spinal cord?
polio
what virus would cause abnormal giant oligodendrocytes?
JC virus- multifocal leukoencephalopathy
What virus would cause severe hemorrhagic and necrotizing encephalitis of temporal lobe with eosinophilic Cowdry type A inclusions?
herpes
What diabetes drug can cause metabolic acidosis and an anion gap?
Metformin- causes latic acidosis in renally comprimised pts.
What kind of food poisoining does bacillus cereus cause?
quick onset
ab cramps, nausea, vomiting
normal bp, temp, WBCs
What is the drug interaction between tetracyclines and antacids?
they bind together and tetracycline is not absorbed.
as will Ofloxacine and other fluoroquinolones
What are some common findings in an ectopic pregnancy?
what bugs predispose?
mass lesion on an adnexa
bulging of the cul-de-sac
elevated hCG
What is Wiskott-Aldrich?
What malignancy does it predispose you for?
X-linked combined immunodeficiency disorder
presents with purpura, eczema, and recurrant opportunistic infections of polyssacharide capsuled organisms like strep. Decreased IgM and T-cells

Develop non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
What is the Ab found in primary biliary sclerosis?
anti-mitochondrial
What is anti-self IgG also known as?
Rheumatoid factor
What autoimmune disease is strongly associated with scleroderma?
Primary biliary sclerosis
What Ab is autoimmune hepatitis associated with?
anti-smooth muscle
What is cyclobenzaprine?
What are it's SEs?
what other drug has those SEs?
centrally acting muscle relaxant
dry mouth, drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, fatigue, tachycardia, urinary retention, and abdominal cramping
similar to TCAs (amitriptyline
What is the mechanims of action of Dantrolene?
prevents the release of calcium
What would candidiasis result in when grown in animal serum?
pseudohyphae
What lipid storage disease is X-linked?
Fabry's
What lipid storage diseases are more common in ashkenazi jews?
gaucher, niemann-pick, tay-sachs
what lipid storage disease does not always cause neurodegeneration?
Gaucher's
What type of cells are found in Krabbe's?
globoid