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84 Cards in this Set

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Of what does the bony thorax consist?
thoracic vertebrae, ribs and sternum
With what cavities is the bony thorax associated?
Whole thoracic cavity (2 pleural cavities) and intrathoracic part of abdomen
What is the name of the space between 2 adjacent ribs?
intercostal space (ICS)
List the 3 ways costal cartilage can terminate.
connect to sternum, or costal arch, or end free
What part of the rib articulates with the contiguous thoracic vertebrae?
head of the rib
With what does the tubercle of a rib articulate?
transverse process of the same numbered vertebra
What do the costal cartilages of the last sternal and all asternal ribs form?
costal arch
What are the unpaired bones making the floor of the bony thorax?
sternebrae
What are the 1st and last sternebrae?
Manubrium and xiphoid
What caps the xiphoid process?
xiphoid cartilage
How do ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae?
Head articulates with bodies of contiguous vertebrae and the tubercle articulates with the transverse process of same numbered vertebra
How is inspiration accomplished?
Increased size of the thorax decreases pressure = air rushes in
What is the main respiratory muscle?
Diaphragm
Name the 2 muscles extending between adjacent ribs.
external & internal intercostal mm.
What is the opening into the thorax?
Thoracic inlet
What palable structure is formed by the costal cartilages of the false ribs?
Costal arch
What divides the thorax into two spaces?
mediastinum
What is the mediastium?
Wall or space (depending on belief) seperating the thoracic cavity into two cavitites
Where is the heart located in the thoracic cavity?
(2nd)3rd to(5th)6th intercostal space (ICS) in the bottom 2/3rds of the cavity.
What is the cylindrical tube extending from the larynx to the lungs?
trachea
What covers the trachea in the cranial neck?
Only strap muscles (sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus mm.)
What part of the trachea splits into right and left primary bronchi?
Tracheal bifurcation
List the lobes of the dog's lungs
Left(2): cranial (cranial and caudal parts) and caudal lobes
Right (4) cranial,middle,caudal and accessory
What brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium?
Pulmonary veins
What artery supplies the tissue of the lung?
Bronchoesophageal artery
what seperates lobes of the lungs?
interlobular fissures
What thin walled sacs of the bronchial tree are for gas exchange?
Alveoli
What do radiologists call the pulmonary trunk?
Main pulmonary artery/segment, MPA
What is the mediastinum?
Space or wall (depending on what text is read, I like wall so parietal works for pleura) bt. the serosal layers of the two pleura cavities.
The mediastinum divides the ______ ______ into right and left halves.
thoracic cavity
Name the fibroserous sac enclosing the heart?
Pericardium
What is the potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the serous pericardium?
pericardial cavity
What is located in the pericardial cavity?
"Scant amount" of serous fluid only
Where is the heart located in the thoracic cavity?
(2nd)3rd to(5th)6th intercostal space (ICS) in the bottom 2/3rds of the cavity.
What is the cylindrical tube extending from the larynx to the lungs?
trachea
What covers the trachea in the cranial neck?
Only strap muscles (sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus mm.)
What part of the trachea splits into right and left primary bronchi?
Tracheal bifurcation
List the lobes of the dog's lungs
Left(2): cranial (cranial and caudal parts) and caudal lobes
Right (4) cranial,middle,caudal and accessory
What brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium?
Pulmonary veins
What artery supplies the tissue of the lung?
Bronchoesophageal artery
what seperates lobes of the lungs?
interlobular fissures
What thin walled sacs of the bronchial tree are for gas exchange?
Alveoli
What do radiologists call the pulmonary trunk?
Main pulmonary artery/segment, MPA
What is the mediastinum?
Space or wall (depending on what text is read, I like wall so parietal works for pleura) bt. the serosal layers of the two pleura cavities.
The mediastinum divides the ______ ______ into right and left halves.
thoracic cavity
Name the fibroserous sac enclosing the heart?
Pericardium
What is the potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the serous pericardium?
pericardial cavity
What is located in the pericardial cavity?
"Scant amount" of serous fluid only
Name the three layers of the heart
endocardium,myocardium and epicardium
The right atrium receives blood primarily through which 2 veins?
cranial & caudal venae cavae
What side of the heart is the right ventricle on? Left ventricle?
Right: cranial(right,cranial and left sides); Lt:caudal
What is the vestigial, fetal connection from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta?
Ligamentum arteriosum
The cranial & caudal _____ _____ return venous blood to the _____ _____. The blood then enters _____ _____, travels through the ______ _______ and _______ _______ to the _______. The ______ _______ return oxygenated blood to the ______ ______. This blood is pumped to the ______ _____ and then out the ______ to the rest of the _______.
venae cavae, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, body
What is the adult remnant of the fetal foramen ovale?
Fossa ovale
What seperates the atria?
Interatrial septum
Name the wall seperating 2 ventricles.
Interventricular(IV)septum
Which ventricle has a thinner wall and why?
right, less strength needed to reach lungs
What are the valves of the heart?
Right and left atrioventricular(AV); aortic & pulmonic valves (semilunar valves)
What abnormal sounds are caused by blood flow turbulence in the heart?
Murmurs
What are the three parts of the conduction system of the heart?
Sinoatrial node(SA), atrioventricular (AV) node and atrioventricular bundle branches
What is the term for ventricular contraction?
Ventricular systole
What is ventricular diastole?
When the ventricles relax and fill with blood
What do the 1st and 2nd heart sounds sound like and roughly represent?
1st (lub): closure of AV valves, 2nd (dub): closure of semilunar valve
How is the esophagus normally related to the arch of the aorta?
To the right of the arch of aorta
What arteries travel up the neck to supply the head and face?
Common carotid aa.
What artery travels on the floor of the thorax?
Internal thoracic a.
What vessels and nerves travel in the intercostal spaces caudal to the ribs?
intercostal a.,v. and n
What vein returns blood from the head, neck, thoracic limb and cranial part of the thoracic walls of the right atrium?
cranial venae cavae
What returns blood from the abdomen, pelvis and pelvic limb?
caudal venae cavae
What three fetal structures bypass the lungs and liver?
Ductus arteriosus and venosus, foramen ovale
What are the two fetal bypasses away from the lung circulation?
Foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus
From where to the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale shunt blood?
From pulmonic to systemic circulation
What is the adult remnant of the following structures?
Ductus arteriosus?
Foramen ovale?
Umbilical arteries?
Umbilical vein?
Ligamentum arteriosum

Oval fossa or fossa ovale
Round ligaments of urinary bladder
Round ligament of liver
What glandular structure is in the cranial mediastinum of the young?
Thymus
What is the large lymphatic channel draining the caudal animal?
thoracic duct
What lymph nodes are near the bifurcation of the trachea?
Tracheobronchial lymph nodes
What is the lymphatic structure in the cranial mediastinum?
Cranial mediastinal lymph node
How does the autonomic nervous system (ANS) work?
without conscious effort
What structures does the ANS regulate?
smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
What is the function of the ANS?
maintain the homeostasis of organism
Autonomic functions are mainly set up by _____ ____.
Reflex archs: visceral sensory & motor nn.
What are the 2 divisions of the ANS?
parasympathetic and sympathetic
What are functions of the 2 divisions of the ANS?
Parasympathetic:energy conserving, sympathetic:energy expending
The visceral effectors of the ANS usually have a _____ innervation.
Dual