Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/67

Click to flip

67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
NERVOUS SYSTEM
The physiological network of intercommunicating cells that forms the basis of our ability to perceive, adapt to, and interact with the world.
BRAIN
The supreme organ of the nervous system, which most directly controls our thoughts, emotions, and motivations.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
One of the main parts of the nervous system. Has two parts: the brain and the spinal cord.
NEURONS
a network of individual cells that receive information and transmit it to the spinal cord
SPINAL CORD
A slender, roughly cylindrical rope of interconnected fibers, about the diameter of your little finger, enclosed within the spinal column, that transmits information from sensory neurons to the brain and from the brain to motor neurons.
SENSORY AFFERENTS
Receive electrochemical information from outlying neurons in the eyes, ears, and skin, and transmit is back up through the spinal cord to the brain. (afferent is a neuron that brings information into a structure)
MOTOR EFFERENTS
Transmit such information as movements of the large and small muscles either from the brain through the spinal cord to the muscles (for voluntary movements) or directly from the spinal cord to the muscles (in the case of reflexes)(efferent is a neuron that carries information away from a structure)
REFLEX
A much faster automatic physiological response to an external stimulus than a voluntary response.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
Comprises all of the neurons except those in the brain and spinal cord.
SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
In charge of quick, deliberate movements by our roughly 400 skeletal muscles (which are directly attached to bones)
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Controls the movement of our non skeletal muscles (striated heart muscles and the smooth muscles)
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Concerned primarily with catabolism (the metabolic processes that use the energy and other resources from the reserves stored in the body)
PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Concerned primarily with anabolism (the metabolic processes that store energy)
SENSORY NEURONS
Receive information from the environment.
MOTOR NEURONS
Carry information away from the spinal cord and the brain and toward the body parts that are supposed to respond to the information in some way.
INTERNEURONS
Serve as intermediaries between sensory and motor neurons.
SYNAPSE
The important gap between neurons through which messages are transmitted.
SOMA
The body of the neuron.
DENDRITES
(branchlike parts of the neuron at the end of the soma) and the soma receive communications from other cells via distinctive receptors on their external membranes.
AXON
A long, thin tube, which can divide and branch many times at its terminus (end). The ____ responds to the information received by the dendrites and soma.
NERVE
A bundle of axons.
MYELIN SHEATH
Insulates and protects the axon from electrochemical interference from other neurons in the area.
NODES OF RANVIER
Gaps.
TERMINAL BUTTONS
Small knobby structures that play an important part in inter-neuronal communication.
GLIAL CELLS
Function as a kind of glue to hold the CNS together by keeping the neurons in their proper places, at optimal distances from one another and from other structures.
THRESHOLD OF EXCITATION
A brief change occurs in the electrochemical balance inside and outside the neuron.
ACTION POTENTIAL
The neuron "fires" (carries impulses, or messages, through the axon from one end to the other.
ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PHASE
No matter how strong the stimulus may be, the neuron cannot fire again.
RELATIVE REFRACTORY PHASE
The neuron can fire but only in response to a stronger stimulus than would typically be necessary.
NEUROTRANSMITTER
A chemical messenger that carries information from one neuron to others.
REUPTAKE
Excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the terminal buttons.
ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh)
Synthesized from the choline in our diet (found in large quantities in milk, eggs, liver, and peanuts, and often classified as part of the vitamin-B complex)
RECEPTORS
Protein molecules in the post-synaptic membrane that receive the neurotransmitters.
DOPAMINE (DA)
Seems to influence such important activities as movement, attention, and learning.
SEROTONIN (5-HT)
Appears to be related to arousal and sleep as well as to regulation of mood, appetite, and sensitivity to pain.
NEUROMODULATORS
Enhance or diminish the responsivity of the post-synaptic neuron, either by directly affecting the axon or by affecting the sensitivity of the receptor sites.
HINDBRAIN
Near the back of the neck.
MIDBRAIN
Between the forebrain and the hind-brain.
FOREBRAIN
Near what becomes the face.
MEDULLA OBLONGATA
An elongated structure at the point where the spinal cord enters the skull and joins with the brain. It helps to keep us alive by entirely controlling the heart rate and largely controlling breathing, swallowing, and digestion.
PONS
Serves as a kind of relay station, containing neurons that pass signals from one part of the brain to another.
CEREBELLUM
Controls bodily coordination, balance, and muscle tone.
RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS)
A network of neurons essential to the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, arousal, and even attention, to some extent, as well as to such vital functions as heart rate and breathing.
BRAINSTEM
The mid-brain, the hind-brain, and then thalamus and hypothalamus, both located in the fore-brain and connects the brain to the spinal cord.
LIMBIC SYSTEM
Important to emotion, motivation, and learning.
HIPPOCAMPUS
Plays an essential role in memory formation.
AMYGDALA
Plays a role in emotions, including anger and aggression.
SEPTUM
Involved in anger and fear.
THALAMUS
A two-lobed structure near the center of the brain, at about the level of the eyes, just beneath the cerebral cortex. The _________ relays the incoming sensory information to the appropriate region of the cortex.
BASAL GANGLIA
Constitute a set of structures close to the thalamus and hypothalamus that are involved in control of movements as well as in judgments and decisions that require minimal amounts of though.
HYPOTHALAMUS
Located at the base of the fore-brain beneath the thalamus, us roughly the size of a kidney bean and controls water balance in the tissues and bloodstream as well as many other functions of the autonomic nervous system.
CEREBRUM
The cerebral hemispheres and the cerebral cortex together make up the ________, that essential part of the human brain that sets us apart from other members of the animal kingdom by allowing us a greater range of psychological functioning and, in particular, though.
CEREBRAL CORTEX
A 2-millimeter-deep layer of tissue that covers the surface of the brain.
CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
Two rounded halves of the brain, the left and right.
CORPUS CALLOSUM
A dense body of nerve fibers, connects the cerebral hemispheres.
BROCA'S AREA
A structure in the left frontal lobe, is involved in the movements of the mouth needed for speech. It is also involved in our ability to speak grammatically.
WERNICKE'S AREA
Precise location in the temporal lobe of the brain that has language-comprehension ability, located in the left hemisphere.
FRONTAL LOBE
The location of higher thought processes, such as abstract reasoning and motor processing.
PARIETAL LOBE
Soma-sensory processing of sensations in the skin and muscles of the body.
TEMPORAL LOBE
Auditory processing.
OCCIPITAL LOBE
Where visual processing occurs.
PROJECTION AREAS
Where the neurons that contain sensory information from the eyes, ears, lips, tongue, nose, and skin senses go to the thalamus.
PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX
Specializes in the planning, control, and execution of movement, particularly movement involving any kind of delayed response.
PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
Receives information from the senses about pressure, texture, temperature, and pain.
OPTIC CHIASMA
A structure in which roughly half of the information from each eye crosses over to reach cortical areas in the contra-lateral hemisphere.
ASSOCIATION AREAS
Process sensory information more elaborately than do the primary sensory areas of the brain.
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM
The electrical activity of the entire living brain can be measured by the _________, which sums the effects of brain activity over large areas that contain many neurons.