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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the science of behavior and mental processes
scientific method
techniques used to discover knowledge about human behavior and mental processes
a tentative statement or idea expressing a causal relationship between two events or variables in a research study
a collection of interrelated ideas and facts put forward to describe, explain and predict behavior and mental processes
a condition or characteristic of a situation or a person that is subject to change within or across situations or individuals
independent variable
the variable in a controlled experiment that the experimenter directly and purposely manipulates to see how the other variables under study will be affected
dependent variable
the variable in a controlled experiment that is expected to change because of the manipulation of the independent variable
experimental group
a group of participants to whom a treatment is given
control group
the comparison group-the group of participants who are tested on the dependent variable in the same way as those in the experimental group but who do not receive the treatment
a group of participants who are assumed to be representative of the population about which an inference is being made
significant difference
a difference that is unlikely to have occurred because of chance alone and is most likely due to systematic manipulations of variables by the researcher
self-fulfilling prophecy
the unwitting creation by a researcher of a situation that unintentionally allows her expectancies to influence the participants or situation
double-blind technique
a research technique in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the control and experimental groups
demand characteristics
elements of an experimental situation that might cause a participant to perceive the situatino in a certain way or become aware of the purpose of the study and thus bias the particpant to behave in a certain way and in doing so, distort results
Hawthorn Effect
the finding, based on early research studies at Hawthorn industrial plant, that people behave differently (usually better) when they know they are being observed
clinical psychologist
mental health practitioner who views behavior and mental processes from pyschological perspective and who treats persons with serious emotional/behavioral problems
physician (MD) specializing in treatment of patients with mental or emotional disorders
pyschiatrist or nonmedical practioner who has studied the technique of pyschoanalysis and uses it in treating people with mental or emotional problems
the contents of conciousness
Wilhelm Wendt-developed 1st pysch lab
used scientific method to study mental life
Edward Titchner helped popularize him
study how and why the mind functions
study how it's related to conciousness
william James-wrote Principles of Pyschology
a procedure to inform participants about the true nature of an experiment after it's done
Gestalt Pyschology
study the person's total experience-people mold sensory elements into patterns that interpret the world-analyze patterns of perception and thoughts-

max wethelner and kurt koffka
Sigmund Freud
-psych maladjustment is a consquence of anxiety caused by unresolved conflicts that a person is unaware of
-childhood experiences influence future adult behaviors and that sexual energy fuels day to day behavior
rejects the study of the contents of conciousness and focuses on describing and measuring only what is observable either directly or through assessment instruments
humanistic psychology
emphasizes the uniqueness of each human being and the idea that humans have free will to determine their destiny
biological psych
examines psychological issues in light of how heredity and biological factors affect mental processes and behavior and that focuses on how physical mechanisms affect emotions, feelings, thoughts, desires, and sensory experiences
cognitive psychology
focuses on the mental processes and activities involved in perception, learning, memory, and thinking
a combination of theories, facts, the practice of usint whatever theories and therapies appropriate for an individual client rather than relying exclusively on the techniques of one school of pyschology
evolutionary psych
seeks to explain and predict behaviors over the course of many generations-
-assumes behaviors that help organisms adapt are passed on to generations