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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Brain Stem
-Control of physiological functions and automatic behaviors
-homeostasis, survival functions
-primative region
-contains medulla, pons, midbrain
Cerebellum
-attached to back of the brain stem
-controls and coordinates movements- especially rapid, skilled movements
-fine motor movement
Meninges
-encloses brain and spinal cord
-3-layered set of membranes
Cerebrospinal Fluid
-clear liquid that hosts the brain and the spinal cord-fills space b/w the meninges and provides cushioning for the brain and the spinal cord
-produced in cerebral ventricles-hollow, fluid-filled chambers located in the brain
Blood-brain barrier
-diminishes the likelihood that toxic chemicals find their way to the brain
-produced by glia
Cerebral Cortex
-surface of the cerebral hemispheres (largest part of brain)
-thin layer of tissue
-gray matter- billions of nerve cells
-bulges separated by grooves in cortex
-perceptions take place
-memories are stored
-plans are formulated and executed
White Matter
-bundles of nerve fibers
-connects nerve cells to other parts of the brain
-axons
Gyri
-Bulges in cortex
-expand surface area of cortex and increases # of nerve cells
-result in lobes of the brain
Fissures
large grooves in cortex
-expands surface area of cortex and increase # of nerve cells
-result in lobes of the brain
Neurons (Nerve cells)
-elements of the nervous system that bring sensory information to the brain, store memories, reach decisions, control activity of the muscles
-recieve information from other neurons
Glia
-hold neurons in place-physical support
-some cells form long fibers that guide developing neurons from their place of birth to their final resting place
-manufacture chemicals that might impair neuron functioning
-form protective insulating sheaths around nerve fibers
-serve brain's immune system-cause of swelling
-nutrient flow
-enhance conduction of nerve signals
Dendrites
-treelike growths attached to the body of a nerve cell
-receives messages from other neurons
Soma
-cell body
-largest part of neuron
-contains mechanisms that control the metabolism and maintenance of the cell
Axon
-nerve fiber
-carries messages away from the soma
Terminal buttons
-end of axons- "twigs"
Neurotransmitter
chemical secreted by terminal buttons
Myelin Sheaths
-gives white matter its color
-part protein, part fat- produced by glial cells that wrap themselves around segments of the axon
-insulates axons
-increases speed of axon potential
Action Potential
-abrupt, short-lived reversal of electrical charge of an axon
Resting Potential
-electrical charge of an axon at rest
-occurs bc of an unequal distribution of positvely and negatively charged particles inside the axon and in the fluid that surrounds it
Sensory neurons
-neurons that recieve information from sense receptors
Motor neurons
-neurons whose axons form synapses with a muscle
Synapse
-the junction of a terminal button of one neuron and the membrane of another cell, another neuron or a cell in a muscle, a gland, or an internal organ
Presynaptic nerve
-the neuron after the synapse
-receives the message from the neurotransmitter
Synaptic Cleft
the fluid filled space between the terminal button and the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron
-where reactions caused by neurotransmitters occur
Neurotransmitter receptors
-special submicroscopic protein molecules embedded in the postsynaptic membrane
-triggers reactions in synaptic cleft
Interneuron
A neuron located entirely within the central nervous system
Central Fissure
-Divides anterior part of cerebral cortex and the posterior regions
-large groove
Primary Visual Cortex
-Receives visual information
-located at the back of the brain on the inner surfaces of the occipital lobe
Primary Auditory Cortex
-Receives auditory information
-Located within the temporal lobe on the inner surface of a deep fissure in the side of the brain
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
-Vertical strip near the middle of the cerebral hemispheres on the parietal lobe
-Receives information from the body senses
Primary Motor Cortex
-Region of cerebral cortext most directly involved in the control of movement
-Frontal Lobe
Sensory Assosciation Cortex
-Information sent here by each primary sensory area
-Where perception takes place and memories are stored
Motor Assosciation Cortex
-In pre-frontal cortex (anterior part of frontal lobe)
-Controls primary motor cortex and thus behavior
Thalamus
-Receives sensory information
-Integrate information
-Assist in the control of movements
-Relay station for cortex
Left Hemisphere
-Analysis of information
-Recognizing serial events-events whose elements occur one after another
-Controls serial behaviors-verbal activities such as talking, understanding the speech of others, reading, and writing
Right Hemisphere
-Specialized for synthesis
-Good at putting isolated events together to perceive things as a whole-draw sketches, read maps, construct complex objects out of smaller elements
-Involved in understanding the meaning of metaphorical statements or the moral of stories
Corpus Callosum
-A large bond of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
Occipital Lobe
-Very back of the brain
-Controls vision
Temporal Lobe
-Juts forward from the base of the brain
-Contains the primary auditory cortex and the auditory assosciation cortex
Parietal Lobe
-Located on side of cerebral hemisphere, behind central fissure in back of frontal lobe
-Primary function=perception of our own body and the location of objects in the world around us
The Frontal Lobes
-Occupy largest portion of cerebral cortex
-Primary function=motor activity
-Involved in planning stratgies for action
Cerebellum
-Important role in control of movement
-Receives sensory information-especially about the position of body parts
-Also receives information from the cortex of the frontal lobes
Basal Ganglia
-Collection of groups of neurons located in the depths of the cerebral hemispheres, adjacent to the thalamus
-involved in the control of movements- particularly slow movements and those that involve large muscles of the body
Limbic System
Set of structures located in the cerebral hemispheres
-important role in learning and memory and in expression of emotion
-consists of hippocampus and amygdala
Hippocampus
-involved in episodic memory-ability to learn and remember experience from our daily lives
Amygdala
Affects emotional behavior
Medulla
-Controls heart rate, blood pressure, rate of respiration, crawling or swimming motions
-Part of brain stem adjacent to spinal cord
Pons
-Involved in control of sleep and wakefulness
-Part of brain stem just above the medulla
Midbrain
-Controls movements used in fighting and sexual behavior and decrease sensitivity to pain while a person is engaged in these activities
-Part of brain stem just above pons
Hypothalamus
-Located below thalamus at the base of the brain
-Participates in homeostasis and species typical behaviors
-Receives sensory information including information from receptors inside organs of the body
-Contains specialized sensors that moniter various characteristics of the blood that flows through the brain, such as temperature, nutrient content, and amount of dissolved salts
controls activities such as sweating, shedding tears, salivating, secreting digestive juices, changing the size of blood vessels, and secretions of some endocrine glands-->throough the nerves of the ANS
Pituitary Gland
-Controlled by hypothalamus
-Endocrine gland attached by a stalk to the base of the hypothalamus
-"Master gland"- b/c the horomones it secretes act on target cells located in other endocrine glands
Endocrine Glands
secrete hormones into the blood, which carries them to all parts of the body
Hormones
-chemicals similar to neurotransmitters-but act over much longer distances
-produce their effects by stimulating receptors-located on target cells
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
-Division of the peripheral nervous system that consists of nerves that control the functions of glands and internal organs
-two branches: Parasympathetic and Sympathetic
-involuntary
Somatic Nervous System
-other division of peripheral nervous system
-transmits information from sense organs to the central nervous system and from the central nervous system to the muscles
-voluntary
Sympathetic branch
-directs activities that involve the expenditure of energy
-ie. can increase flow of blood to the muscles when we are about to fight someone or run away from a dangerous situation
Parasympathetic Branch
-Controls quiet activities such as digestion of food
-associated w/ energy conservation
-ie. stimulates secretion of digestive enzymes and increase the flow of blood to the digestive system...also salivation, gastric motility, blood flow to G.I
Sensation
-detection of specific properties of stimuli-such as intensity
Perception
-occurs when the sensory information is used by the brain to get a response
Transduction
Process by which the sense organs covert energy from environmental events (physical stimulus) into neural activity (changes in activity of the receptor cells of the sensory organs)
Psychophysics
Systematic study of the relation between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the psychological responses (or perceptions) they produce
Cornea
-transparent tissue that covers structure
-forms a bulge at the front of the eye and admits light
Sclera
A tough white membrane that coats the eye
Iris
Consists of two bands of muscles that control the amount of light admitted into the eye
Pupil
Circular opening formed by iris. Constricts in bright light and dilates in dim light
Retina
The interior surface of the eye. Where image is focused
-Performs sensory functions of the eye- embedded w/ over 130 million photoreceptors
Photoreceptors
Specialized neurons that transduce light into neural activity
Optic Nerve/Disk
Back of the eye- where neurons send axons
-all axons leave the eye at optic nerve-which connects to the brain
-no photoreceptors- this portion of retina is blind
Bipolar cells
The neurons with which photoreceptors form synapses
-receive signals from photoreceptors after they respond to light
-transmit information to ganglion cells
Ganglion cells
-Neurons whose axons travel across the retina to form the optic nerve
Rods
Function mainly in dim light-very sensitive to light but are insensitive to differences in colors
-Found in periphery of retina
-more prevalent that cones (120 million)
Cones
Function when the level of illumination is bright enough to see things clearly
-Responsible for color vision
-6 million
-Found mostly in fovea
Fovea
A small pit in the back of the retina approx. 1 mm in diameter-contains only cones
-Responsible for most detailed vision
Eardrum (tympanic membrane)
-Thin, flexible membrane that vibrates back and forth in response to sound waves and passes these vibrations on to the receptor cells in the inner ear
Ossicles
-Middle ear bones- the hammer, the anvil, the stirrup (malleus, incus, and stapes)
-act together in a lever fashion to transmit the vibrations of the eardrum to the fluid-filled structure of inner ear
Cochlea
Bony structure that contains the auditory receptor cells (inner ear)
-divided into 3 chambers by two membranes
Basilar membrane
A sheet of tissue that contains the auditory receptor cells- divides cochlea
Auditory hair cells
-Special neurons that detect sounds
-Transduce mechanical energy caused by the movement of the basilar membrane into neural activity
Cilia
Hairlike protrusions possessed by auditory hair cells
Tectorial Membrane
-Fairly rigid shelf that hangs over the basilar membrane
-Cilia embedded in it
Pheromones
Special chemicals that regulate sexual and social behavior
Olfactory Bulb
Stalklike structures located at the base of the brain
-contain neural circuits that perform the first analysis of olfactory information
Olfactory Mucosa
Patches of mucous membrane on the roof of the nasal sinuses just under the base of the brain
-cicilia embedded in it
Vestibular Apparatus
-located in the inner ear
-Provides additional sensory input that helps us remain upright
Semicircular Canals
-Liquid filled-located in the inner ear and oriented at right angles to one another- detect changes in rotation of the head
Gestalt Laws
Proximity: Elements that are closest together are perceived as belonging together
Similarity: Elements that have a similar appearance will be perceived as part of the same object
Continuity: Predicatbility or simplicity
Closure: Visual system often supplies missing information and "closes" the outline of an incomplete figure
Common fate: Elements that move in the same direction will be perceived as belonging together and forming a figure
Templates
Special kinds of memories used by the visual system that creates ability to recognize shapes of objects
-Type of pattern used to produce a series of similar objects
-Theory= match perceived objects to stored representations in our minds
-Problems? Extremely inflexible- too much storage space required
Prototypes
-Idealized pattern
-Does not require an exact match b/w the pattern being perceived and a specific memory but accepts a degree of disparity
-Use prototype as a standard for comparison
-more flexible- exact match b/w and item and mental representation is not required
Bottom-up processing
-data-driven processing
-the perception is constructed out of the features- the bits and the pieces- of the stimulus beginning with the image that falls on the retina
-information processed hierarchially by successive levels of the visual system until the highest levels are reached
Top-down processing
-knowledge-driven processing
-use of contextual information- the "big picture"
Binocular Cues
Convergence-Used to perceive the distance of objects located close to us
Retinal Disparity-Produces the effect of depth- disparity b/w the images on an object on the two retinas
Monocular Cues
Interposition-one object obscures another- obscured one seems more distant
Size-Small image= far away
Linear Perspective-tendency for parallel lines that recede from us to converge at a single point
Texture-Coarser texture looks closer, finer texture looks more distant
Shading-patterns of ligth and shadow in a scene
Elevation-objects near horizon seem distant
Motion Parallax- Objects further away move slower
Source Error
Anecdotal based evidence
-small sample size- ie. tv commericals
-Charlatans-sales people
-Authority-ie. celebrities
Inferential Error
Conclusive errors about information
-overestimate traits-underestimate circumstantial things
-stereotypes
-probability-cause and effect, superstition
-vivid examples
Rene Descartes
(1596-1650)
-Discourse on Method
-saw behavior based on the brain
-Dualist-mind and body are fundamentally seperate and communicate through the pineal gland
Luigi Galvani
(1737-1798)
-behavior caused by electrical system through nerves
Johannes Muller
(1801-1858)
-Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies- depends on where stimulus is located
Pierre Flourens
(1774-1867)
-Experimental Ablation-removal of part of the brain
-brain basis of motor behavior-different parts of brain control different motor skills
Paul Broca
(1824-1880)
-left frontal lobe-speech production- analyzed people w/ strokes
Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig
(1870)- Mapped motor/sensory cortex- used dog
Hermann von Helmholtz
(1821-1894)- Speed of body movement slower than speed of light- thus not electricty that controls motion
Wilhelm Wundt
(1832-1920)
-Considered first psychologist- "Principles of phisilogical pyschology"
- took pyschology into laboratory and took scientific steps
Brain Lesion
An injury to a particular part of the brain and then studies the effects of the lesion on the animal's behavior
Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT)
- X-ray based technology
-scanner sends a narrow beam of x-rays through person's head
-produces 2D image of slice of person's head
Magentic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
-Places a person's head within a strong magnetic field
-High-resolution images of the brain
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
-Studies how people pay attention to things
-Makes graph of brain's acivity recorded through metal disks attached to a person's skull
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
-Lets us know which parts of the brain are active during a certain task
-Person given injection of radioactive chemical that accumulates in the brain in metabolically active cells
Functional MRI
-Images while a person is thinking/moving
-Looks at oxygen utilization
Correlational Studies
-Looking at difference b/w X and Y
Non-experimental designs
-no control over the independent variable
-naturalistic observations, case studies, survey
Quasi Experimental
-Looking at difference between two groups of naturally exisiting conditions
-i.e- men and women
Experimental Designs
-Can control I.V
-Between subjects
-Within subjects
Dura Mater
Outer (Thick) layer of meninges
Arachnoid
Middle Layer of meninges
-overlies the arachnoid space (CSF)
-blood vessels run through the arachnoid layer
Pia Mater
Inner layer of meninges
-overlies every detail of the outer brain
Schwann's cells
-Outside the CNS-they make the myelin