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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Motivation
Physiological and psychological factors that account for the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior
Drive
Internal motivational state created bu a physiological need
Drive-reduction theory
Theory that views motivated behavior as directed toward the reduction of a physiological need
Optimum-level theory
Theory that the body functions best at a specific level of arousal, which varies from one individual to another
Cognitive dissonance
aversive state produced when an individual holds two incompatible thoughts or cognitons
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's view that basic needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs can be satisfied
Basic Physiological Needs
Food, water, and sleep
Safety needs
Order, physical security, freedom from fear
Belongingness and love needs
Affiliation with friends, a supportive family, group identification, and an intimate relationship
Esteem needs
Attention and recognition from others, and feelings of accomplishment, competence, and mastery
Self-actualization needs
Development of one's potential to the fullest extent
Self-actualization
Need to develop one's full potential; the highest level of Maslow's hierarchy
Obesity
body weight of 20% or more in excess of desirable body weight
Body Mass Index
A numerical index calculated from a person's height and weight that is used to indicate health status and disease risk
Anorexia nervosa
A potentially life-threatening eating disorder occurring in primarily young and adolescent females; an intense fear of becoming fat that leads to self starvation and weight loss
Bulimia nervosa
Eating disorder in which a victim alternatively consumes large amounts of food and then empties the stomach
Pheromones
Chemical odors emitted by some animals that appear to influence the behavior of members of the same species
Achievement
Manipulation of the environment according to established rules to attain a desired goal
Emotion
Physiological changes and conscious feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness aroused by external and internal stimuli, that lead to behavioral reactions
James-Lange Theory
Theory that physiological changes precede and cause emotions
Commonsense view of emotions
View that emotions precede and cause bodily change
Cannon-Bard Theory
Theory that the thalamus relays information simultaneously to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system and physiological changes to occur at the same time
Polygraph
an electronic device that snese and records changes in several physiological indices including blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and galvanic skin response
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Hypothesis that making a certain facial expression will produce the corresponding emotion
Display rules
Culturally specific rules for which emotions to display, to whom, and when
Nonverbal communication
Communication that involves movements, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, use of personal space, and touching
Paralanguage
Communication that involves aspects of speech such as rate of talking and tone of voice, but not the words used
Memory
System or process by which the products or results of learning are stored for future use