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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
awareness of ourselves and our environment
the ability to focus awareness on a single stimulus to the exclusion of all others
selective attention
a relatively passive state of waking consciousness that involves turning attention away from external stimuli to internal thought and imaginary situation
a person who has regular, vivid fantasies and who sometimes cnanot separate fantasy from reality
fantasy-prone personality
a nonwaking state of consciousness characterized by minimal physicla movemetn and minimal responsiveness to one's surroundings
internally generated behavioral and physiological changes that occur on a daily basis
circadian rhythms
very fast, low-amplitude brain waves associated with an active, alert state of mind
beta waves
fast, low-amplitude brain waves associated with a relaxed, wakeful state
alpha waves
irregular, low-amplitude brain waves associated with stage 1 sleep
theta waves
bursts of rapid, rhythmic electrical activity in the brain characteristic of stage 2 sleep
sleep spindles
slow, high-amplitude brain waves most typical of stage 4 deep sleep
delta waves
a relatively active phase in the sleep cycle, characterized by rapid eye movements, in which dreaming occurs
REM (rapid eye movement) sleep
storylike sequences of vivid visual images experienced during sleep
dreams in which the dreamer is aware of dreaming and is often able to change the plot of the dream
lucid dreams
the dream that is remembered by the dreamer
manifest content
the true meaning of the dream that is concealed from the dreamer through the symbols that make up the manifest dream content
latent content
a theory taht dreams provide people with the opportunity to creatively solve their everyday problems
problem-solving theory
a theory that the cognitive process of dreaming consolidates and stores information gathered during the day, thus allowing us to maintain a smaller and more efficient brain
off-line dream theory
a theory that dreaming is a by-product of random brain activity, which the forebrain weaves into a somewhat logical story
activation-synthesis theory
a awareness of oneself and one's environment that is noticeably different from the normal state of consciousness
altered state of consciousness
a psychological state of altered attention and awareness in which a person is unusually receptive to suggestions
the degree to which a person can enter a deep hypnotic state
a theory that hypnotized persons enter an altered state in which two streams of consciousness operate simultaneously, one actively responding to suggestions and the other passively observing what is going on
neodissociation theory
a variety of mental exercises that alter the normal flow of consciousness in order to enhance self-knowledge
chemicals that modify mental processes and behavior
psychoactive drugs
persistence in drug use even when impaired behavior or social functioning results
drug abuse
an effect of drug abuse in which greater amounts of the drug are necessary to produce the same effect once produced by a smaller dose
psychoactive drugs that slow down-or depress- the nervous system and decrease mental and physical activity
psychoactive drugs tha speed up- or stimulate- the nervous system and increase mental and physical activity
psychoactive drugs that distort perception and generate sensory images wi thout any external stimulation
the occurrence of tolerance and physical dependence due to the prolonged abuse of alcohol
the occurrence of tolerance and physical dependence due to the prolonged abuse of alcohol
a category of depressant drugs, including opium, morphine, and heroin, that depress the nervous system, temporarily relieve pain, and produce a relaxed, dreamlike state
the most potent of the hallucinogens, which is synthesized an dinduces hallucinations, distortions, and a blending of sensory experiences
a mild hallucinogen derived from the leafy material of the hemp, or Cannabis, plant that often induces a sense of giddiness or euphoria, as well as a heightened sensitivity to various stimuli
the major p sychoactive ingredient in marijuana
a sleep disorder involving panic attacks that occur during early night stage 4 NREM sleep
night terrors
a leep disorder in which a person arised and wanders about while remaining asleep
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable REM sleep attacks during normal waking hours
a sleep disorder in which a person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep
sleep apnea
a common sleep disorder involving the chronic inablity to fall or stay asleep
a leep disorder in which a person arised and wanders about while remaining asleep
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
conditioned response (cr)
in classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response
conditioned stimulus
the initial stae of classical conditioning, during which a previously neutral stimulus begins to acquired the ability to elict a conditioned response
a classical conditioning procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus after being paired with an existing conditioned stimulus
higher-order conditioning
in classical conditioning, the tendency for a conditioned response to be elicited by stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus
stimulus generalization
in classical conditioning, the tendency for a conditioned response not to be elicied by stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus
stimulus discrimination
in classical conditioning, the gradual weakening and disappearance of teh conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeartedly presented without being paired with the unconditioned stimulus
the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
a basic principle of learning that states that behavior becomes more or less likely based on the effect it has in producing desirable or undesirable consequences
law of effect
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement and weakened if followed by punishment
operant conditioning
the process by which a stimulus increases the probablility of the behavor that it follows
any stimulus or event that increases the likelihood that the behavior preceding it will be repeated
stimuli that are innately reinforcing because they satisfy some biological need
primary reinforcers
stimuli that are learned and become reinforcing by being associated with primary reinforcers
secondary reinforcers
stimuli that strengthen a response by presenting a positive stimulus after a response
positive reinforcers
stimuli that strengthen a rsponse by removing an aversive or unpleasant stimulus after a response
negative reinforcers
a schedule of reinforcement in which every correct reponse is followed by a reinforcer
continuous reinforcement
a schedule of reinforcement in which correct responses are followed by reinforcers only part of the time
partial reinforcement
partial reinforcement schedules that reinforce a response after a specified number of nonreinforce response
fixed-ratio schedule
partial reinforcement schedules that reinforce a response after a variable number of nonreinforced responses
variable-ratio schedules
partial reinforcement schedules that reinforce the first response after a fixed time interval has elapsed
fixed-interval schedules
partial reinforcement schedules that niforce the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed
variable-interval schedules
in operant conditioning, the process of teaching a new behavior by reinforceing closer and closer approximations to the desired behavior
shaping (or the method of successive approximations)
the process by which a stimulus decreases the probability of the behavior that if follows
species-specific behavior patterns that interfere with operant conditioning
instinctive drift
learning that occorus without apparent reinforcement and in no demonstrated until sufficient reinforcement is provided
latent learning
the passive resignation produced by repeated exposure to aversive e vents that connot be avoided
learned helplessness
learning a behavior by observing and imitating the behavior or others (models)
observational learning
a theory that contends that people learn social behaviors mainly through observation and cognitive processing of information
social learnign theory
the process by which one learns the consequences of an action by observing its consequences for someone else
vicarious conditioning