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28 Cards in this Set

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Solipeism
The belief that objective reality does not exist. (philosophical)
Sensation
The basic units/building blocks of sensory experience. The subjective organization of sensory qualities.
Specific nature energies
Muller believed that what we see, etc. is a function of our nerves. Stimuli don't go directly to the brain- they stimulate our sensory receptors. What receptors pick up the stimulus determines how it is processed. (Sensory mixups)
Adaquate vs. inadaquate stimulus
Adaquate- normal stimulus (seeing something)
Inadaquate- abnormal stimulus (touching your eye to create sight)
Cycle of senses
Physical energy- sensory organs- brain activity- sensation
Psychophysics
The study of the relationship between physical energy and the subjective response to it (sensation)
Distal stimulus
the object (a tree)
Proximal stimulus
the image we see based on the image it cast
Transduction
The conversion of a stimulus into a nerve impulse
Difference threshold/jnd
The smallest amount of stimulus change that can be detected (observed in jnd units)
Signal detection theory, response bias, payoff matrix
etc
wavelength
Color
amplitude
Brightness/darkness
Electromagnetic spectrum
We can only see a small portion of it (from 400-700 nm). We can see this because that's where the sun's energy is. 400= shortwave, violet. 700= longwave, red. violet- blue-green-yellow-orange-red
Threshold experiment
At direct gaze we are most sensitive to 550 nm. At indirect gaze we are most sensitive to 500 nm. Indirect gaze is more attuned to shortwave light. (vary energy with wavelength)
Luminance
A measure of how effective a light is at stimulating the eye.
Indirect fixation/peripheral
Most sensitive at 500 nm and indirect gaze, low visual acuity (ability to percieve detail/spatial information), no color vision, many rods (120 million), low light levels, scotopic.
Direct fixation/fovea
550 nm and direct gaze, good visual acuity, color vision, mainly cones (6 million), high light levels, phototopic.
Duplicity theory
We have two separate vision systems- one for low light and one for high light.
Rhodopsin
What makes up rods. purple. absorbs light energy (is a visual photochemical). Made of ris-retinal (vitamin A).
Scotopic vision process
Cis-trans isomerization. When light hits, the rhodopsin moves from cis-retinal to trans-retinal, changing the shape but not the chemistry. Rhodopsin is bleached, and then it restores itself. The more isomerization (stronger light), the stronger the response (absorption of light).
Principle of Univariance
All information about color is lost at the absoption event. Amplitude is detected but not the wavelength. This is why the scotopic system can't see color.
Trichrometric
Photopic vision has three main receptors for short, medium, and long wavelengths. (Young- Helmholtz)
Relative spectral absorption
How likely a photochemical is to absorb light of different wavelengths. Because a wavelength will stimulate one of the 3 receptors more and the other 2 less, the brain can compare the activity to create the sensation of color. It does this by building opponent channels that inhibit/excite each other (RG BY- but yellow does not have a corresponding photochemical)
Iris
Lets in light/dilates
Cornea and lens
Bends light to project image onto retina. Lens focuses the image as well (accomodation)
Optic nerve
Bundles of fibers that carry information to the brain. Where it exists creates a blind spot.
Order of eye
Cornea, iris, lense, retina.