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24 Cards in this Set

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focused on individual sensory systems and how receptors interact with their environments to create a subject experience.
concentrates on how individual sensory information is combined to represent the real world of objects and events.
Makes perception possible. An aspect of the sensory stimulus pattern that conveys information about the physical.
Compensation for retinal displacement
The nervous system compensates for the retinal displacements that are produced by voluntary eye/head movements. The brain cancels out such displacements, allowing us to see a stationary object as stationary even if our eyes are moving.
Induced motion-
the larger/enclosing object tends to act as a stationary frame for the other one (billiard ball and pool table).
Problem of depth perception-
how do we perceive 3D when it’s not directly represented in our sense organs?
Depth cues
features of the stimulus situation that indicate how far away an object is.
Auditory depth cues-
we have two ears.
Binocular depth cues
We have two ears that are 65 mm apart. Each eye has a slightly different view, and this allows us to perceive depth. The different view is referred to as binocular parallax, which results in retinal disparity (different retinal images).
Monocular depth cues-
let us perceive depth in one eye alone. Also known as pictorial cues (cues that are put in a painting). Linear perspective and relative size: distant objects produce smaller retinal images than close objects. Interposition- a closer object will block on that’s further away. Texture gradients- patterns change, revealing spatial layout. Shadow.
Motion cues-
motion parallax. Objects closer to us seem to move more than faraway objects. Note: the idea of motion can also be induced. Flashing lights appear to travel even though they aren’t moving (apparent movement).
Physiological cues-
convergence. Muscles of the eye must exert different degrees of concentration to fixate on near/far objects.
Size constancy-
objects are seen as fixed in size regardless of how close they are/how large the retinal image is. Familiarity is irrelevant; distance cues are relevant. Two eyes and good light are needed for good size constancy.
Size-distance invariance hypothesis-
our brain is constantly weighing retinal image size with perceived distance to construct our idea of “size.”
Emmert’s law of afterimages
- the perceived size is directly proportional to how far away an object seems.
COLOR (blue, green, etc.). Chromatic. GR or BY. Opponent- either one or the other within the pair- not both at the same time.
how dark or light (black or white) an object. Achromatic. Non-opponent channels. They don’t inhibit each other and can be combined in many ways (subjective dimension of lightness).
judges how chromatic an object is. If the object is very gray, the saturation is zero.
Subtractive mix
artist and pallet. Colors are mixed so that the wavelengths are subtracted/blocked. (Resulting color would be neither absorbed by yellow OR blue.)
Additive mix
different wavelengths that stimulate the same region simultaneously. (Blue plus yellow.) Used in TVs.
tends to come about if all wavelengths are excited.
is NOT the absence of color. It is a contrast arrangement. Surrounding whiteness will induce blackness.
important because it corresponds with reflectance (the % of light that is reflected from an object). If 100 units of light is cast on coal and the coal reflects 5 units, the reflectance is 5%. This means that it is very dark.
Lightness constancy-
even if physical light increases, a white sheet of paper will still look just as white- no more, no less. The lightness will stay the same. This relies on the induction of blackness. Even if more light is reflected back, the % reflectance stays the same because more blackness is induced along with more lightness.