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85 Cards in this Set

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The ability of the eye to adjust its cofus for seeing at different distance by changing the shape of the lens through action of the ciliary muscle
accomodation
Loss or impairment of vision after birth
Adventitious Visual Impairment
Reduced vision without observable changes in the structure of the eye, caused by eyes that are not straight or by a difference in the refractive erros in the two eyes, sometimes formerly called "lazy eye" not correcatble with lenses becuase the brain's suppression is the cause
amblyopia
A graphlike card used to determin central field losses, as in macular degeneration
amsler grid
different refractive errors or at least 1 diopter in the two eyes
anisometropia
The clear fluid in the space between the front of the viterous and the back of the cornea, produced by the ciliary processes, that bathes the lens and nourishes the irirs and inner surface of the corna.
Aqueous Humor
a refractive error that is cuased by an irregular curvature of the cornea and tat prevents light rays from coming to a point or focus on the retina
astigmatism
A clouding of the lens of the eye: may be congnetial, traumatic, age related. WHen is it reomved, an implant is needed to replace the functioning of the lens
cataract
the vascular layer of the eye, between the sclera and the retina, that nourishes the retina; part of the uveal tract
choroid
tissue inside the eye, compoased of the clilary processes and cilary muscle
ciliary body
secretes aqueous humor
cilary processes
conrtols the shape of the lense
ciliary muscle
a congential cleft in some portion of the eye cuased by the improper fusion of tissue during gestation: may affect the optic never, ciliary body, choroid, iris, lens or eyelid
coloboma
a lense that spreds out light rays and is used to correct myopia. Minus lens
concave lens
the hereditary degeneration of cones, resulting in decreased vision and the lack of color perception
cone-rod dystrophy
speciliazed photoreceptor cells int he retina, primarily concentrated in the macular area that are responible for sharp vision and color perception
cones
loss or impaimnet of vision that is present at birth
congential visual impaiment
the mucous membrane that lines teh eyelids and part of the outer surface of the eyeball
conjunctiva
the movment, as an object approaches of both eyes toward eachother in an effort to maintain fusion of separate images
convergence
a lens that bend light rays inwards and is used to correct hyperopia. Plus lense
convex lens
visiona loss that is the result of damage to any part of the visual pathways in the brail
cortial visual impaimment
a noninflammatory disaese of the retianl blood vessesl cuased by disabetes; a leading cause of blindness in the US
diabetic retinopahty
a vision disorder in which two images of a single object are seen because of unequal action of the muslces in the eyes - double vision
diplopia
Federal legistaltion enacted in 1975 gave free and approprate public education, lre, now known as IDEA
pl 94-142
another name for pl 94-142
IDEA
a surgial procedure consisting of removal of the entier eyeball
ennucleation
a form of strabismus in which one or both eyes deviate inward
esotropia
a form of strabisumus in which one or both eyes deviate outward
exotropia
a depression in the center of the macula that contains ony cones and lacks blood vessesl
fovea
a disease in which increased intraocular pressure results in the degernation fo the optic disk and evnetaul defects in the visual field.
glaucoma
a refractive error in which light rays converge behind the retina resulting in vision that is better for distant that for near objects
hyperopia - farsightedness
what type of lense is used to correct hyperopia?
convex or plus lens
what does IEP stand for?
invidualized eudcation program
what does IFSP stand for?
indiviudalized famiyl service plan
the colored, circular membrane of the eye that is suspended between the cornea and the lens and that expands or contracts to control the amount of light entering the eye
iris
what is the acuity for legal blindness?
20/200 in the bettter eye after best correction
the transparnet biconvex structure within the eye that allos it to refract light rays enabling the rays to focus on teh retina
lens
a small protion of the rina, with a concentartion of cones for sharp central vision that surround the fovea
macula
deteriotion of central vision caused by a degneration f the central retina
macular degenration
an inherited congential disorder of the connective tissue, characterized by abnormal elongation of the extremities, partial disolation of the lens, heart abnormatilies
marfan syndrom
an abnormally small eyeball
microplhtalmia
vision in one eye, typicall caused by injury or enucleation
monocular vision
a refractive error resulting from an eyeball that is too long, image focuses before the retina
myopia - nearsightedness
what type of lens is myopia corrective with?
concave or minus lens
an invluntary rapid movment of the eys, usally rhytmical and faster in one direction
nystagums
ocular almbinis
a hereditary condition that results in pigmentation loss in the retinal pigmetn epithelium, iris and choroid
oculocutansious albinism
the congential lack of pigment in the iris, choroid, hair and skin that results in reduced acuity, ligth sensitivty and nystagmus
an ocular condition characterize dby degneration fo the opitc nerve and reulting the loss of visoin and construciton of the visual fields
optic atrophy
the point at which teh nerve fibers from the inner layer of the retina becomes the opitc nerve and exith the eye, the "blind spot" of the eye
optic disk
the sensory never of the eye that carries electrial impuses from the eye to the brain
optic nerve
a congentially small optic disk, usualyl surrounded by a light halo and representing a regressio nin grwoth during the prenatal persod - may result in reduced viusal acuity
optic nerve hypoplasia
two pyrmaidal cavaies in the front of the skull that contain the eyeballs, eye muslces and fatty cusinoing layers as well as nerves and blood vessels
orbits
a dectrease in accomodative power (focuasing at near) cuased by the increasing inelasticity of the lens-ciliary muscle mechanism that occurs approximately anytime after the age of 40
presbyopia
speical traingle shaped lenses that are incorporated into regualr eyeglasses, to redirect the rays of light entering the eye resulting in a realighment of the yes or, in some cases a shifting of image to permit binocular vision
prism lens
the bnding of light rays as they pass through a substance
refraction
the innermost layer of the eye which receives the image formed by the lens, containng light senstii vee nerve cells and fibers connecting with the brain through the opic nerve
retina
the separation fot eh retina from the underlying choroid, caused by a retiunal tear which allows fluid to accumulate between the retina and the retinal pigmetn epitheulia
retinal detachment
a hereditary degneratiion and atrophy of the retina of unkonw etioloty - night blindness and constricted peripheral fields
retinits pigmentosa
an intraocular malignant tu mor. sympotms inclued reness, pain, infmaition, or a gray or white pupil.
retinoblastoma
a series of retinal changes seen in premies, due to immature blood vessesl in the eye stiumlated in reaction to oxygen
retinopahty of prematuirty ROP
sepcialized retinal photoreceptor cells that are located primarlity in the peripheral retina, responsible for seeing form, shape and movemnt and funciton best in low lewvels of illumination
rods
the touch, white opaque outer covering of the eye that protects the inner contents from injury
scleara
a gap or blind spot in the visual fied
scotoma
an extrisnic musle imbalince that causes misalightmnet of the eyes; inclueds exo eso hyper and hyp tropia
strabismus
the transparnet gel that fills the viterous cavity, mostly water, maintaings shape of the eyeball
viterous
sepcialized retinal photoreceptor cells that are located primarlity in the peripheral retina, responsible for seeing form, shape and movemnt and funciton best in low lewvels of illumination
rods
the touch, white opaque outer covering of the eye that protects the inner contents from injury
scleara
a gap or blind spot in the visual fied
scotoma
an extrisnic musle imbalince that causes misalightmnet of the eyes; inclueds exo eso hyper and hyp tropia
strabismus
the transparnet gel that fills the viterous cavity, mostly water, maintaings shape of the eyeball
viterous
sepcialized retinal photoreceptor cells that are located primarlity in the peripheral retina, responsible for seeing form, shape and movemnt and funciton best in low lewvels of illumination
rods
the touch, white opaque outer covering of the eye that protects the inner contents from injury
scleara
a gap or blind spot in the visual fied
scotoma
an extrisnic musle imbalince that causes misalightmnet of the eyes; inclueds exo eso hyper and hyp tropia
strabismus
the transparnet gel that fills the viterous cavity, mostly water, maintaings shape of the eyeball
viterous
an instructinoal strategy used to teach sequential tasks by teaching each task one at a time in sequential order
chaining
A system developed specifically for indiviudals with visual impairments. It is a norm refered test battery that assesses intelligence academic achievement, motor skills, tactile skills, adaptive behavior, work behavior and emotionality.
comprehensive vocatioanl evaluation system
a determination of how clearly the items sampled ont he test represetn the content that the test purports to measure
content validity
formal or informal instruments that compare the studnet's performance to the overall mastery of the skill being evaluated. They are judges against a predetermined level of mastery that is often a %
criterion referenced tests
an evaluation of a student's progress by reviewing comparing skills with the content of th student's curriculum
curriculum based assessment
the use of reflected sound to detect the presenc of objects, such as walls, bueildings, doors and openings
echolocation
What plan is created for toddlers in speicaul education?
IFSP
an examination of the child's use of sensory information, need for general learning media, and specific literary media
learning media assessment
tests in which the studnet's results are compared to that of a larger group on which the test was standardized
norm referenecd test
at what age does a student get a transition IEP?
14