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29 Cards in this Set

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What is metabolism?
The sum of all the chemical process that go on in the body.
What is metabolic rate?
The amount of energy produced in a given time.
What are the products of protein oxidation?
Urea, carbon dioxide, and water.
Of the three types of energy, which provides the most heat?
Fats.
What are light calories?
Calories from fat because it takes less fat to get the same amount of calories.
What are heavy calories?
Calories from proteins and carbohydrates because it takes more to get the same amount of calories.
What is the best way to determine a persons metabolic rate?
Place them in a closed environment and measure the heat they put off in a single day.
What is respiratory quotient?
The amount of CO2 produced per amount of O2 consumed.
What is the respiratory quotient for carbohydrates?
1.0
What is the respiratory quotient for fats?
0.7
How much of our energy comes from carbohydrates, fats when at rest?
44% from glucose, 56% from fatty acids.
During heavy exercise what is the main source of energy?
Glucose
What is the basal metabolic rate?
The absolute minimum amount of energy needed to stay alive.
When is the oxygen debt restored?
When hemoglobin and myoglobin are restored, when high energy phosphate stores are restored, and when lactic acid is neutralized.
What factors stimulate metabolism?
Exercise, eating, low temperatures, fever, thyroid hormone, catecholamines.
What are the percentages of energy stores in the body?
1. Triglycerides 75%
2. Proteins 23%
3. Carbohydrates 1%
Why is glucose an essential form of energy?
The brain can only use glucose for energy*
Why does protein not serve as a true source of energy in the body?
Very destructive. Only serves in cases of extreme starvation.
What occurs if glycogen stores are full?
Converts excess glucose to fat.
Can fatty acids be converted to glucose?
No, therefore they it can never again be utilized by the brain.
What part of a triglyceride can be converted into glucose?
Glycerol.
Can amino acids be used in gluconeogenesis?
Yes
Can acetyl CoA be used in gluconeogenesis?
No
Can pyruvate be used in gluconeogenesis?
Yes
What hormone promotes gluconeogenesis?
Cortisol
What process breaks fatty acids into two carbon chains?
Beta-oxidation
What are the essential fatty acids?
Linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic.
How is fat stored in the body?
Travels to capillaries associated with adipose tissue, lipase's break it down into a monoglyceride and two fatty acids, it enters the cell and is reformed into triglyceride.
How are fatty acids transported in the blood?
Complexed with serum albumin.