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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define BTU?
Amount of heat required to raise temp. of 1 lb. water 1F
Define Specific Heat?
Measure of heat absorbing capacity of substance, Water = 1
Define Specific Gravity?
Density of liquids in relation to water
Define Water Hammer?
Force created by rapid deceleration of water. Energy surge transmitted in opposite direction
What are 2 sources of municipal water supply?
Surfact water - River, Lake or Ground water - Well, Spring
Define Dead End Hydrant?
Receives water from only one direction
Name 3 means of moving water in a water system?
Direct Pumping, Gravity, Combination
Name 2 types of Indicator Valves?
Post indicator Valve - PIV, Outside Screw and Yoke - OS&Y
One square foot of water is ___ inches?
144 Square Inches
Above sea level, Atm. Pressure decreases ____ psi every 1000 ft.?
.5 psi
Name 2 types of valves in water distribution system?
Gate and Butterfly
One cubic foot of water weighs ____?
62.5 lbs.
Define Latent Heat of Vaporization?
Quantity of heat absorbed by substance when it changes from liquid to a vapor
Define Pressure?
Force per unit are, PSI
One square inch column of water one foot hgh exerts downward pressure of ____?
.434 psi (62.5lbs divided by 144 sq. inch)
One psi raises a one inch column of water ___ feet?
2.304 ft (1ft. divided by .434 psi)
What is atmospheric pressure?
14.7 psi
One psi equals ___ inches of Mercury?
2.04 inches
Mercury column at sea level is ___ inches?
29.9 inches (2.04 times 14.7)
Define PSIG.
Pounds per Square Inch Gauge;
Includes Atmospheric Pressure;
Ex. 10 PSIG = 10 + 14.7 = 24.7
Define PSIA.
Pounds per Square Inch Absolute; Actual Atmospheric Pressure
Define Vacuum.
Any Pressure less than Atmospheric Pressure.
Define Perfect Vacuum.
Absolute Zero Pressure
Define Head.
Water pressure due to Elevation; Refers to Height of Water Supply above a Discharge Orifice
Define Head Pressure.
Height divided by 2.304
Define Static Pressure.
Stored potential energy availbable to force water through pipe, fittings, hose, adapters. Pressure exerted when water is not moving.
Define Normal Operating Pressure.
Pressure found in distribution system during normal consumption.
Define Residual Pressure.
Part of total available pressure not used to overcome friction loss or gravity while forcing water through pipe, fittings, hose, adapters.
Define Flow Pressure.
Forward velocity pressure at a discharge opening while water is flowing.
Define Elevation.
Refers to centerline of pump or bottom of static water source above or below ground level.
Define Elevation Pressure.
Gain or loss of pressure in hoseline due to change in elevation.
Define Altitude.
Position of object above or below sea level.
Define Friction Loss.
Part of total pressure lost while forcing water through pipe, fittings, hose, adapters.
Name causes of Friction Loss.
Anything that affects movement of water; Water molecules moving against each other; Adapters; Couplings; Bends; Lining; Improper Gasket Size
Define Critical Velocity.
Turbulance caused when velocity is increased beyond practical limits; Entire stream becomes agitated.
How do you reduce Friction Loss?
Shorten Hose; Increase Hose Diameter; Eliminate Kinks; "Short, Fat, Kinky"
Define Circulating Feed Hydrant.
Receives water from 2 or more directions.
What is another name for Circulating Feed Hydrant?
Looped Line
What are 4 Components of Municipal Water System?
Source; Means of Moving; Processing/Treatment; Distribution System
What are 3 Components of Water Distribution/Grid System?
Primary Feeders; Secondary Feeders; Distributors
What are 2 broad categories of Water System Valves?
Indicating & Non-Indicating
Where are Indicating Valves usually found?
Private Protection Systems
Where are Non-Indicating Vavles usually found?
What does OS&Y stand for?
Outside Screw & Yoke
Where are OS&Y commonly found?
Sprinkler Systems
How do OS&Y indicate Open or Closed?
Threaded stem outside yoke when Open; Threaded stem inside yoke when Closed
What does PIV stand for?
Post Indicating Valve
How do PIVs indicate Open or Closed?
Visually show OPEN or SHUT.
What is the 1st Principle of Friction Loss?
FL varies directly with Length of Hose or Pipe
What is the 2nd Principle of Friction Loss?
FL varies with Square of Increase in Velocity
What is the 3rd Principle of Friction Loss?
FL varies Inversely as 5th Power of Diameter of Hose
What is the 4th Principle of Friction Loss?
For given Velocity, FL is same regardless of Pressure on Water
What are Disadvantages of Water as Extinguishing Agent?
High Surface Tension; Reactive with some Fuels; Low Levels of Opacity & Reflectivity; Freezes at 32F; Conducts Electricity
What are Advantages of Water as Extinguishing Agent?
Great Heat Absorbing Capacity; Greater Surface Area Exposed the more rapidly Heat is Absorbed; Large amount of Heat changes water to steam thus Absorbing & Displacing Heat; Plentiful & Readily Available
What is the 1st Principle of Pressure?
Acts Perpendicular to Any Surface
What is the 2nd Principle of Pressure?
Fluid Intensity has No Direction at Rest
What is the 3rd Principle of Pressure?
Pressure on Confined Liquid is Transmitted in All Directions
What is the 4th Principle of Pressure?
Pressure in Open Vessel is Proportional to Depth
What is the 5th Principle of Pressure?
Pressure in Open Vessel is Proportional to Density
What is the 6th Principle of Pressure?
Pressure at Bottom of Vessel is Independent of Vessel Shape