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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the key symptoms of TB
Weight loss
Night sweats
How do you differentiate between TB and PCP
You can use LDH test
TB of the spine
Pott’s Disease
Where is the MC site of TB lymphadenitis?
Along the SCM muscle
What is the most common cutaneous manifestation of tuberculosis
Lupus vulgaris
What is the lab test for TB?
AFB smear
How does Primary TB manifest?
Ghon complex
left lower lobe infiltrate
pleural effusion
ipsilateral hilar lymphadenopathy
What is the empiric Tx of TB?
Start pt’s on a 4 drug regimen:

And either Ethambutol or Streptomycin

Once the isolate is known to be fully susceptible, ethambutol (or streptomycin if used as the 4th drug) can be D/C’d

After 2 months of therapy, pyrazinamide can be stopped

INH plus rifampin are continued for 4 more months (6 months total)
what is the third most common cause of death in the US
What is Virchow’s Triad?
And vessel wall inflammation
What % of PEs are missed on diagnosis?
What are the most common symptoms of PE according to the BIOPED study?
dyspnea (73%)
pleuritic chest pain (66%)
cough (37%)
hemoptysis (13%)
What are the most common signs of PE according to the BIOPED study?
Tachypnea (70%)
Rales (51%)
Tachycardia (30%)
Fourth heart sound (24%)
What criteria is used to diagnose PE?
Wells criteria
What is the definitive test to dx PE
Pulmonary angiography
What re the MC ECG abnormalities of PE
Nonspecific ST-T wave abnormalities

Although not sensitive or specific
What is the Tx for PE
Heparin then
Warfarin x 6 months

MCC of transudative pleural effusion
MCC of exudative pleural effusion
what are the physical findings of pleural effusions?
Decreased breath sounds
Dullness to percussion
Decreased tactile fremitus
Egophony (E-to-A change)
Pleural friction rub
How many mL's of fluid are needed to show blunting of the costophrenic angle on upright PA CXR
more than 175 mL
What is pleurodesis?
its the artificial obliteration of the pleural space. It is done to prevent recurrence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion.
What is the recommended site for needle thoracostomy in the treatment of a pneumothorax?
The second intercostal space in the midclavicular line on the affected side immediately superior to the rib

This procedure should be followed-up with placement of a chest tube over the fifth or sixth rib in the midaxillary line
What are the initial Xray findings with a PE
Normal Xray

Westermark sign
Hampton's hump
Elevated hemidiaphragm
Small pleural effusion