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63 Cards in this Set

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What 2 things does Respiration refer to?
1. Gas exchange
2. Cellular respiration
what gas exchange occurs in respiration?
O2 for CO2
What are the 2 zones within the airway?
1. Conducting zone
2. Respiratory zone
What 3 resp structures compose the conducting zone?
-Bronchi
-Bronchioles
-Terminal bronchioles.
What 3 resp structures compose the respiratory zone?
-Respiratory bronchioles
-alveolar duct
-alveolar sacs
Which zone has gas exchange?
the respiratory zone.
What's the conducting zone also called? Why?
-What takes place there?
Dead zone - no gas exchange.
DOES: Warm air, humidify it, remove junk from it.
What 2 properties const. dead space?
-Cartilage to prevent collapse
-Smooth muscle to regulate airflow.
What characteristic enhances gas exchange in the resp zone?
Alveoli, providing large surface area.
how many alveoli/lung?
approx 500 million.
What pressures affect breathing?
-Atmospheric
-Pleural fluid
-Alveolar
what is outside pressure?
Atmospheric = Barometric = 760 mm Hg, but we say 0 cm of H2O.
What is F = to?
F = (Patm - Palv)/Resist.
When is there no airflow in or out of lungs?
when Patm = Palv
What direction does air flow when Palv is
-Positive?
-Negative?
Positive, flow out

Negative, flow in.
When is pleural pressure negative?
Always.
What makes neg. Pleural press?
Stretch reflexes of
-Lungs, want to collapse.
-Thoracic wall, want to expand.
Together they increase Pleural space volume thus decr. press.
What's the significance of having a negative Ppl all the time?
keeps the lungs expanded.
What controls the volume of the chest cavity?
Volume of pleural space, controlled by the DIAPHRAGM contracting.
What is a hole in the chest wall called? What's its affect?
Pneumothorax - makes Pleural pressure equal Barometric, lungs deflate and collapse.
What needs to happen for normal inspiration?
Increase chest cavity volume to decrease alveolar pressure.
-DIAPHRAGM CONTRACTION.
What allows increased inspiration?
Recruitment of other muscles.
-External intercostals
-Neck accessory muscles.
What occurs in normal expiration?
PASSIVE relaxation of the diaphragm.
What allows increased expiration?
Contraction of INTERNAL intercostals and abdominal muscles.
what measures resp volumes and capacities?
a spirometer
What is tidal volume?
the volume moved merely by breathing - the air going in and out of your airways.
what is IRV?
inspiratory reserve volume - the additional space for forced inspiration beyond normal amt.
what is ERV?
expiratory reserve volume - the amt of space you can breathe out hard
what is RV?
whats the typical value?
residual volume - the air you can never breathe out.
Typically 1 L
What is Vital capacity?
What is it equiv to?
What is the typical value?
Total amt of air you can move - total lung capacacity
VC= Tidal vol + IRV + ERV
Typical value: 5 L
what is the typical tidal volume?
.5 L (500 mL)
what is "forced vital capacity"?
the rate of your vital capacity breathed out as fast as possible in one second. basically just breathing out hard and fast.
what is the problem in an "Obstructive Disorder"?
Patient can't breathe out enough
-Forced vital capacity decreasd, -Makes Residual vol increased.
In obstructive disorders, what are the values of:
Forced Vital Capacity?
Residual volume?
Total lung capacity?
3 L - FVC is decreased from 5 L
3 L - RV increased from only 1 L
6 L - TLC is normal.
What is the cause of emphysema?
-Loss of alveoli/elastic recoil.
-Result: lungs dont want to deflate as much so passive exhalation is impaired.
What's a "Restrictive Disorder?"
What are two categories of it?
Problem in air inhalation
-Acute: edema/fluid in lungs.
-Chronic: fibrous growth in lungs.
In restrictive disorders, what are the values of:
FVC
RV
TLC
FVC: 3L (decreased)
RV: 1L (Normal)
TLC: 4L (decreased)
Is Asthma a restrictive or obstructive disorder?
What causes it?
Obstructive disorder.
Cause: allergy/stress constricts airways; increased chest compression collapses lungs, traps air inside lungs and can't push it out.
What is dead space?
What are 2 types?
Which is normal/abnormal?
Space in lungs not involved in gas exchange.
-Anatomic - normal
-Alveolar - abnormal, diseased.
What is Anatomic dead space?
Air in the conducting zones.
Typically about 150 ml
What is Alveolar dead space?
Alveolar air that no blood is flowing past; no gas exch. here.
What is Total ventilation?
Does it adequetely represent breathing?
the amnt of air moved / min.
Typ: 500ml/bth x 12b/m = 6000
No - it's not necessarily the amount of air in gas exchange.
What is a better representation of gas exchange?
Alveolar ventilation -
Av = (Tidal vol - Anatomic dead space)x Breathing frequency.
(500 - 150)x 12 = 4200 ml/min
Better to breathe deep/slow or Shallow/fast?
Deep/slow - if you breathe shallow you only fill up your dead space.
What do snorkelers have to do?
Why?
Breathe more deeply because anatomic dead space is increased.
What is Airway resistance proportional to?
1/airway radius to 4th power.

Incr airway radius decrs resistance, vice versa.
In airways:
Where is greatest resistance?
Where is most important R?
Bronchi are most resistant b/c there are so FEW of them.
Most important R in bronchioles b/c have smooth muscle and there are many of them.
What 3 things control airway resistance?
1. Sympathetic nervous sys.
2. Parasymp nervous sys.
3. CO2 in the tissues.
How does the SNS control airway resistance?
By releasing Norepi and Epi to act on Beta2 receptors and cause DILATION so you can run.
How does the PNS control airway resistance?
By releasing AcH to muscarinic receptors to cause CONSTRICTION so you don't waste air while sleeping.
What's a common Asthma treatment?
Beta2 receptor agonist - acts like EPI so you can breathe better.
How does CO2 control airway resistance?
Normally it's in high levels in the capillaries to bronchioles.
When Blood flow blocked, CO2 is low, so bronchioles constrict.
What should I remember to predict how the bronchioles will act in response to blood flow?
Decrease BF, Decrease Bronch'ol.

BLOOD FLOW MATCHES AIR FLOW!!!!
What is "COMPLIANCE"?
the measure of how distensible the lungs are - how easily they inflate.
What does Compliance = ?
chng in Vol
Compliance = ------------------
chng in Pressure.
When is Compliance increased?

What is the Press/vol relation in this case?
Emphysema - Inflating easier b/c elastic recoil is decreased.

Changes in pressure cause bigger volume changes - Barrel chested.
When is compliance decreased?

What is the P/V relnshp?
In Restrictive disorders (i.e., edema; lungs harder to inflate.
Pressure changes result in unremarkable volume changes.
What is the purpose of SURFACTANT?
It decreases surface tension in the alveoli by disrupting hydrogen bonds in the water coating, thus preventing collapse of the alveoli.
What secretes surfactant?
Type 2 alveolar cells
What is surfactant made of?
Lipoprotein - fat dirsupts hydrogen bonds and decreases water surf tension in alveoli.
Where is surfactant more important, in small or large alveoli?
Small - if wasn't there, they would collapse.
When in development is surfactant made?
Late in fetal dvelopment; therefore preemies lack it, and their alveoli collapse.
what does lack of surfactant do to compliance and work in breathing?
Decreases compliance.
Increases work you have to do to breathe.