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34 Cards in this Set

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What are the 2 drug classes to treat Asthma? Name the drugs in each class. (3)(2)
1. Bronchodilators (Beta-2 Adrenoceptor Agonists, Methylxanthines, Muscarinic receptor antagonists)
2. Anti-inflammatory agents (Cromolyn Sodium, Neodocromil)
Beta-2 Adrenoceptor Agonists have what kind of suffix?
-erol
Describe the onset of Beta-2 agonists?

Duration?
Rapid onset of action, 15-30 minutes.

Provide 4-6 hours relief.
What is a common Beta-2 agonist Bronchiodilater?
Albuterol
What is the difference between Beta-1 and Beta-2 receptors?
Beta-1: Affect the heart, act by increasing the rate and force of contraction of the heart.
Beta-2: work on bronchial smooth muscle, cause bronchodilation.
What is Albuterol used for?
Asthma and Prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm.
What are the 3 MOA of Albuterol?
-Dilates the bronchi by a direct action on the Beta-2 adrenoceptors on the smooth muscle.
-Inhibits vagal tone
-Increases muscle clearance by the cilia.
What are the CVS SE of Albuterol?
-CVS: (mainly due to beta-1 receptor stimulation), tachycardia, hypertension, angina and arrhythmias.
What are the CNS SE of Albuterol?
CNS: nervousness, anxiety, headache, dizziness, and insomina. Stimulant effect.
What determines the likelihood of CV SE of any drug?
Depends on if they have Beta-1 or Beta-2 selectivity. If they have beta-2 selectivity, they will only cause bronchiodilation and not effect the heart.
What is an example of a Methylxanthine? How are they different from Beta-2?
Theophylline. Used much less than Beta's. Naturally occuring. Theobromine - chocolate.
Bronchiodilation in Methylxanthines is due to what?
May be due to increasing cAMP.
What are the CNS and CVS effects of Methylxanthines?
CNS Stimulation, CVS cardiac stimulant, vasodilation of most vascular beds, (constriction of cerebral blood vessels). Accelerates mucus clearnace by the cilia.
Name a type of Muscarnic receptor Antagonists bronchiodilator.
ATROVENT
How do muscarnic receptor antagonists work?
Inhibit ACH mediated bronchospasm. Inhibits the increased mucus secretion in asthma, increase mucociliary clearnace of bronchial secretions.
How is muscarnic receptor use different from other bronchiodilators?
Used for bronchospasm associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema and rhinorrhea (runny nose). SE: dry mouth and cough
Generally, asthma is treated with...
Bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory gulcocorticoids.
Name three glucocorticosteroids that are used as anti-inflammatory drugs.
1. Beclomethasone
2. Triamcinolone
3. Fluticasone
Are NSAIDs useful for asthma as a bronchiodilator?
NO, in fact you can get Aspirin induced asthma.
How do glucocorticosteroids work?
They decrease inflammation from the inside out, starting at the cellular level. They reduce existing bronchial inflammation and/or prevent subsequent inflammation. Decrease # and activity of WBCs involved in airway inflammation.
If someone is wheezing, what type of asthma med should you give them? Be specific.
B2, not anti-inflammatory. Anti-inflammatory are used for PREVENTION, not in emergency situations.
Name 2 uses of Beclomethasone.
1. Used w/ pts who have severe asthma dn require inhalation of B2 agonist mroe than once daily.
2. Nasal spray, allergic rhinitis.
How do anti-inflammatory drugs like Beclomethasone work?
Reduces the hyper-responsiveness or bronchiocontriction of airway
Do Beclomethasone/Glucocorticosteroids cause bronchioconstriction or bronchiodilation?
Neither. They PREVENT bronchioconstriction, but DO NOT cause bronchiodilation.
Cromolyn sodium and nedocormal are....
Anti-inflammatory drugs, specificially mast cell inhibitors.
Cromolyn Sodium and Neodocormal are used for...
Intended use as a prophylactic ONLY. PREVENTION ONLY!!! Derease bronchial hyperresponsiveness.
How does Mast Cell Inhibitors like Cromolyn Sodium and Neodocormal work? MOA?
Inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells after exposure to an antigen. It is neither a brochodilator nor does it have any direct effect on smooth muscle.
What are two distinguishing features about Mast Cell Inhibitors?
They have a horrible taste and low SE.
Are Mast Cell Inhibitors used to treat asthma?
NO!! They are PREVENTION only.
What is Cromolyn Sodium used for? What does it treat?
They are used for:
-Prevention of Asthma
-Prevention of allergen or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.
-Allergic rhinitis
Treats cough/wheezing/throat irritation, nasal congestion. Do not take if you have an asthma attack.
Drugs used to treat asthma include... (2)
Bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory agents
Druges to treat Rhinitis include...(4)
Bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory agents, antihistamines and cromolyn sodium.
Drugs to treat COPD include...(3)
COPD bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory agents and anticholinergics.
Drugs to treat cough include...(2)
Dextromethorphan and opioids.