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26 Cards in this Set

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Gram - bacterial pneumonias
Klebsiella
E. Coli
H. flu
Psedomonas
Predispositions to pneumonia
1. Impaired Phagocytosis
2. Decreased bacterial clearing
3. Enhanced growth environment
The four phases of pneumonia infection
1. Congestion & Dyspnea (bacterial proliferation)
2. Red Hepatization (increase PMN, RBC, fibrin, few macs)
3. Grey Hep (low PMN, high macs, fibring, RBCs breakdown)
4. Resolution (clearing)
Aspirated necrotizing substances cause?
Lung Abscess
Unique b/c they can drain to the outside
What are the two inflamatory pathways leading to bronchiectasis
1. Increase mucus levels creating chronic pneumonia and fibrosis
2. Bronchial wall destruction
Both lead to dialated bronchi
The primary different between viral and bacterial pneumonia
Bacteria P. form intra-avlevolar inflitrates of PMN

Viral P form interstitial lymph inflitrate of monocytes
Make up 20% of lung infections in kids and is exclusive to the bronchioles
Respitory Syncytial Virus
Rare infection in children has 40% fatality
Adenovirus
Cause 50% of infection after bone marrow, major cause of death in organ transplants and AIDS patients
Cytomegalovirus
Give three examples of non-necrotizing and necrotizing granulomatous pneumonias
N-N: sarcoidosis, dust, fungal

Nec: TB, abnormal mycobacterial, Wegener's
Primary TB infection
1. Ghon complex
2. Caseous necrosis
3. small foci fibros, caseous calcify
4. rarely disseminates
Secondary TB infection
1. endog reactivation or exog bacteria
2. Occurs in upper lobe b/c higher O2
symptoms of TB
mid-afternoon fever, night sweat, weakness, loss of appetite. blood in sputom, cough and dyspnea possible
Atypical mycobateria affecting AIDS patients
M. Avium-Intracellular
Atypyical mycobateria in hairy cell leukemia
M. kanasaii
non-coalescing, noncaseating granulomas with lymph cuffs
Abnormal mycobacteria
(Sarcoidosis has coalescing granulomas with out lymph cuff)
Grow in sand of the SW
60% asymptomatic
flu-like illness
thick-wall, non ubdding spherule filled with endospores
Coccidioidomycosis
nosocomial
dichotomous 45 degree branching hyphae
occurs in 40% of patients with leukemia
Asperillosis
Ohio-Mississippi Valley
From nestling starling bird droppings
Similar to TB pathology
roun oval yeast with narrow base
Histoplasmosis
From pigeon droppings
Granulomatous in regular patient
massive multiplication in alveol and consolidation
Dissemination common
round oval yeast with unqeual budding (India ink stains
Cryptococcosis
large irregular non-parallel hyphae
angioinvasive, necrotizine, fungla balls
common in leukemia
Mucormycosis
North America, uncertain source
Dissemination to skin common
Solitaty disseas common, progressive possible
yeast with broadpbased buds
Blastomycosis
Mixed suppurative and mononuclean response
not granulomatous
pseudohyphae
Typical in immunocomprimised
Candidiasis
Fungai with hyphae
Aspergillosis
Mucormycosis
Candidiasis (pseudo)
Fungia common with leukemia
Aspergillosis
Mucormycosis
originally described in mallnourised children and patienst wit leukemia.
AIDS definining illness
Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP)