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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most common cancer in the lung is ?
metastatic
Carcinoma means it originates from ___ layer
epithelial
Adenocarcinomas are generally found in the ___
periphery
90-95% of primary lung tumors are ____
bronchogenic
Cytology progression to carcinoma
metaplasia -> atypia -> dysplasia -> carcinoma in situ -> carcinoma
Conversion of columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium.
metaplasia
If it has cilia then it is not ____
malignant
Normal cell appearance in sputum
ciliated cells, round, regular nuclei
Denser chromatin and incrased nucleus/cytoplasm ratio
dysplasia
large nucleus w/ clumped chromatin and irregular border and large N/C ratio
carcinoma
Other factors that contribute to lung cancer
radiation, metals, chemicals, and asbestos, scarring, air pollution, genetic factors
Means it's arising from epithelium that has ability to create glands, squamous cells, and neuroendocrine features
tumor heterogeneity
Most common pulmonary neoplasm seen in men
squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma is usually ____ located
centrally
Squamous cell carcinoma can resemble ____.
TB
Lung carcinoma spreads by four mechanisms:
direct extension
through blood
through lymphatics
contiguous body surface extension
Two histological features of SqCC.
intracellular bridges and production of keratin
Why do SqCC cells appear in sputum?
lack of cohesion
Adenocarcinoma occurs ___ frequently w/ smoking than SqCC.
less
General definition of adenocarcinoma.
malignant cells forming glands
Adenocarcinoma tends to occur more ____. (location)
peripheral
Adenocarcinomas tend to leave ___.
scars
Adenocarcinomas are ____ and ____ growing.
smaller, slower
Formation and proliferation of connective, seen w/ tumors.
desmoplasia
Any tumor that produces mucin is a _____.
adenocarcinoma
Histological appearance of adenomocarcinoma.
big nucleolus, big cells, clump together and form glands, produce mucin, mircovillus border
Often this is originally diagnosed but then later corrected to SqCC or adenocarcinoma.
Large cell carcinoma
Very aggresive, spreads beyond lung b/f symptoms.
SmCC
Strong relationship w/ smoking.
SmCC
Location of SmCC usually.
centrally
SmCC is AKA
oat cell carcinoma
SmCC is often associated w/ what feature?
ectopic hormone production
Histological appearance of SmCC.
Sheets of cells w/ very little cytoplasm. Size similar to lymphocytes.
Sputum appearance of SmCC.
may look like degenerative nucleli and diagnosis may be missed
EM of SmCC.
little bit of cytoplasm w/ lot of neurosecretory granules
Specific type of adenocarcinoma. Affects all ages, not associated w/ smoking.
bronchioalveolar carcinoma
Distinguishing feature of BAC
normal alveoli w/ columnar epithelium
BAC arise in ____ region and mimics ____.
bronchioalveolar, pneumonia
Carcinoid tumors in lung are locally ____.
invasive (can spread by direct extension)
Morphology of bronchial carcinoid.
nests of cells w/ similar nuclei, NO CELL BORDERS
Another name for bronchial carcinoid is?
bronchial adenoma
Malignant features of B. carcinoid?
necrosis and perineural invasoin
Neuroendocrine tumors produce a variety of ____
peptides
Possible peptides produced by a neuroendocrine tumor
ACTH - causing Cushing's syng
ADH - causing hyponatremia
Normal tissue appearing in a disorganized fashion in common location.
hamartoma AKA chondroma b/c it's mainly cartilage in lung
Hamartomas are ____ to cut out, with ____ chance of malignancy.
easy, no
Laryngeal tumors are often related to ____.
viruses (HPV in children)
Organ w/ highest incidence of hematogenous metastasis.
lung
____ _____ are caused by asbestos fibers.
Malignant mesothelioma
Benign mesotheliomas look like ____.
collagen (no cells)
Tumor develops in superior sulcus that spreads past the ribs into neck affecting the sympathetics.
Pancoast tumor