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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Thiopental
IV anesthetic
not good for sick or injured
Methohexital
iv anesthetic
not good for sick or injured
oxybarbitol
short acting, can use repeatedly and prolonged
propofol
gold standard for routine casesIV anesthetic
rapid recovery time
antiemetic effect
etomidate
IV anesthetic
less vasodilation and heart rate depression
used for hypovolemics causes post nausea
ketamine
psychomimetic effects can be blunted with comb Tx
dissociative anesthesia
patient remains responsive
good with trauma pts./
stimulated CV systen and preserves aireway reflexes leading to bronchodilation
Increases cerebral blood flow
good for hemorrhaging patients, stat c section
general characteristics of IV anesthetics
rapid onset
short duration
fill volume of distribution
can have high lipid solubility leading to high Vd

usually decreased cerebral blood flow
tetracain
procaine
chloroprocain
local anesthetic
metabolized in the blood
toxicity of local anesthetics
contraindications
sedation,
seizures,
tinnitus
decreased contractility, rate and conduction
contra:aortic stenoisis coaguopathy and shock
types of nervous blockades
topical (for intubation and dental procedures)
infiltration (sub q for stitches and biopsy)
nerve block: inject near nerve to numb who region
intravenous limb block: use of tournequet
nueraxis block: lowe ab. and limb only
lidocaine
bupivicaine
mepivicaine
local anesthetics metabolized in the liver
nonanesthetics
narcotics
sedatives
muscle relaxants
narcotic characteristics
analgesic, sedative, not anesthetic, not amnestic
intense pain relief
reverse with naxolone
not good for chronic or post op pain
quick, short acting
benzodiazapenes
pre op sedatives, reduce anxiety
produce amnesia and unconsciousness
pancuronium
curare
succinylcholine
muslce paralysis only, no analgesic or anesthetic
H1 organs
blood vessels
capillaries
bronchioles
GI
uterus
Sa node
myocardium
nerve
H2 organs
sa node
myocardium
secretory tissues
blood vessels
diphenhydramamine
first generation h1 receptor competitive antagonists
PO, 2-4 hours
cause sedation, dry mouth
hypotension
benadryl
allergies
motion
dimenhydrinate
first generation h1 receptor competitive antagonists
PO, 2-4 hours
cause sedation, dry mouth
hypotensiondramamine
motion sickness
tripelenamine
first generation h1 receptor competitive antagonists
PO, 2-4 hours
cause sedation, dry mouth
hypotension
allergies
hydroxyzine
first generation h1 receptor competitive antagonists
PO, 2-4 hours
cause sedation, dry mouth
hypotension
allergies pruritis
meclizine
first generation h1 receptor competitive antagonists
PO, 2-4 hours
cause sedation, dry mouth
hypotension
motion sickness antiemetic
chlorpheniramine
first generation h1 receptor competitive antagonists
PO, 2-4 hours
cause sedation, dry mouth
hypotension
allergies
promethizine
first generation h1 receptor competitive antagonists
PO, 2-4 hours
cause sedation, dry mouth
hypotension
antiemetic
terfenadine
with arrythromyaacin causes torsades de pointes
allergies
loratidine
minor tremor, headache rash

for allergies
second generation longer lasting
no sedative, anticholinergic effects PO
cetirizine
minor tremor, headache rash

for allergies
second generation longer lasting
no sedative, anticholinergic effects PO
fexofenadine
minor tremor, headache rash

for allergies
second generation longer lasting
no sedative, anticholinergic effects PO
Cimetidine
h 2 receptor competitive antagonist
PO short duration
p450 inhibition
anti adrogenic
for peptic ulcers
CNS confusion
ranitadine
nizatidine
famotidine
h 2 receptor competitive antagonist
PO short duration

for peptic ulcers
CNS confusion
isoniazide
tb TX
pro drug
decreases mycolic acid synthesis
acetylated in liver then ecreted in urine
#1prophylaxis
AE peripheral neuropathy
risk of hep
GI malaise
rifampin
tb TX
blocks bacterial dna dependent RNA pol
increased hepatic enzymes
cidal
used in multi drug tx
ORANGE excretions!!
ethambutanol
TB Tx static
limits sx's
stops cell wall arabinogalactin synth
AE optic neuritis
contraindicated in kids who can't do eye exams
pyrazinamide
TB Tx
nicotinimide analog
pro drug
cidal prophylaxis
hepatotoxicity acute episodes of gout
streptomyacin
aminoglycoside
works slowly
block protein synth
IM or IV
cidal
ciprofloxacin
TB tx
blocks bacterial DNA synth
cidal
especially MAC
some tendonitis and joint pain
rifabutin
MAC tx
disseminated
ethionamide
similar to INH
no x resistance
cycloserine
highly toxic
but very effective for TB tx. last resort
cromolyn
nedocromil
prophylactic
inhibits mast cell degranulation
inhalation and nasal spray for allergic rhinitis
theophylline (caffeine)
inhibition of PDE
bronchodilation
PO but systemic AE
CNS tremor
increased chronotropy, inotropy
increased gastric secretion
b agonists
albuterol
metorpterenol
terbutaline
pirbuterol
bronchodilation
short acting
inhaler
salmeterol
formeterol
longer lasting bs agonist
ipratroprium
muscarinis antagonist
decreases vagal ACh
inhaled
45 min
used especially for COPD
corticosteroids
beclomethasone
triamcinolone
fluticasone
inhaled or PO
(thrush) (withdrawal) (iatrogenic cushings)
antiinflammatory
not for acute Tx
doesn't reverses bronchospasm
prophylactic
zileuton
zariflukast
blocks 5 lipoxygenase
blocks LTD4
PO only works for some pts
aldosterone
adrenal steroid
replacement therapy
mineralcorticoid
AE HTN hypokalemia
h20 retention
spirolactone
comeptitive inhibitor of aldosterone
used in CHF or hyperald.
AE hyperkalemia
gynecomastia, impotence
ACTH
causes release of steroids from the adrenal gland
IV or IM
prevent megacolon. test for adrenal fx
Hydrocortisone
upregulates mRNA/protein synth
protein breakdown
gluconeogenesis
lipolysis
buffalo hump
moon face due to NA h2o retent
increased BP
anti inflammatory due to suppression of ICAM, no PMN migration
binds albumin and other plasma protein
metabolized by liver

used for arthritis
asthma
allergies
immunosupression

AE osteoporosis
hyperglycemia
HTN
PUD
acne
prednisone
#1 PO
short
methylprednisone
#1 INSOLUBLE
short
arthritis
triamcinolone
topical
allergic rxns
intermed.
dexamethasone
long
asthma
poison ivy
betamethasone
long asthma,
hyalin membrane
dextromethorphan
OTC antitussive
decreases medullary cough center reflex
poor opiode
not analgesic/sedative, addiction etc
codeine
opiode antitussive
can cause sedation
addiction, tolerance
mucosal drying
used for PAINFUL cough
demulcents
cough drops
provides protective coating
antitussive
local anesthetics (lidocaine
benzocaine
tetracaine)
antitussive
used before bronchoscopy\
tetracain decreases pulmonary stretch receptors
iodides
expectorant
rarely used

liquefy secretions and increased secretions
unpleasant taste
skin eruptions
hypothyroid
guanifensin
robutussin
OTC expectorant
not clear efficacy
mucolytics (acetylcysteine)
free sulhydril groups
decrease viscosity of mucus

good fro chronic bronchitis or CF
can cause bronchoconstriction
used with bronchodilator
proteolytic enzymes
expectorant
break down lysed cells
dnases (dornase)
can cause local irritation and allergic rxn
phenylephrine
phenylpropanolamine
oxymetazaline
decongestents
alpha adrenergic agonists
vasoconstriction of blood vessels
topical therefore few systemic AE's
but only 2-3 days: downregulation of receptors that can lead to rebound hyperemia
pseudoephedrine
ephedrine
sudaphed PE
decongestents
alpha adrenergic agonists
vasoconstriction of blood vessels
long acting
PO: if no congested can't use nasal spray
can have increased BP esp. with MAOI
nicotine
metabolism
mechanism
effects
weak base
rapid absorption into CNS passive diffusion active uptake into choroid plexus
biotransformation in the liver cotinine: longer half life, also biotranformation in lung, renal excretion
effects at autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla,
NMJ. reward pathway.
arousal, relaxation, euphoria, concentration memory
AE: bronchoconstriction
ACTH release
platelet aggregation
endothelial damage
increase cortisol
tolerance, wtihdrawal
buproprion
smoking cessation
decreases norepi, dopamine, seratonin reuptake
clonidine
smoking cessation
decreased norepi release with a2 antagonist
naloxone
opiate antagonist
Gamma vinyl GABA
decreases nicotine craving by decreasing brain dopamine activity.