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9 Cards in this Set

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describe how emphysema can result in cor pulmonale
In emphysema there is loss of the alveolar walls and a reduction in the associated capillary bed. Hypoxemia associated with emphysema results in reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction. This reflex vasoconstriction along with increased flow through a capillary bed that is reduced in size likely leads to the remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature, elevated pulmonary artery and right heart pressures which in turn lead to cor pulmonale. These changes do not lead to left heart hypertrophy.
order of symptoms in obstructive pulmonary disease:
xray changes
ABGs
cough
spirometry
cough
spirometric changes
ABGs
xrays
why can reflex hyperventilation usually correct hypercapnia in lung disease (like emphysema) but not oxygen debt. I.e. why would you see normal CO2 levels but hypoxemia in emphysema
due to the sigmoidal Sa02 vs. PaO2 curve. Hyperventilated healthy alveoli cannot adequately compensate for the malfunctioning alveoli in terms of their ability to saturate Hb. On teh other hand, CO2 pressure is linearly related to CO2 content...therefore you can blow off CO2 quite easily and resolve your hypercapnia
Which of the following is the pharmacologic treatment of choice for controlling the progression of asthma?
inhaled corticosteroids
what are known as the "slow acting" substance of anaphylaxis?
leukotrienes
how would you characterize the late asthmatic response?
the late asthmatic response is characterized by inflammation, particularly by increased production of newly-synthesized (rather than pre-formed) mediators. Thus, beta-agonists alone are not likely to be adequate to treat this aspect of the patient's condition.
name some non-obstructive causes of bronchiectasis
on-obstructive causes of bronchiectasis include CF (a mendelian disorder); Kartagener's syndrome (ciliary dysfunction); immune deficiencies (e.g., panhypogammaglobulinemia) and necrotizing pneumonias (e.g., tuberculosis, staphylococcus infection)
what is loeffler's ? can it cause bronchiectasis
form of pulmonary eosinophilia that resolves in < 1 mo.

not a cause of bronchiectasis
is there evidence that smoking can instigate an immunological reaction (e.g. activation of CD 4 lymphocytes) that results in emphysema?
no