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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does APA stand for?
American Psychological Association
Guidelines are kept current, where can that be found?
What is the traditional medium for research results?
scientific journals
Journal articles are usually reports of what 5 types of articles?
empirical studies
literature reviews
theoretical articles
methodological studies
case studies
Members of the scientific community generally agree that the characteristics of publications are what (3)?
1. articles represent research not previously published
2. articles are reviewed by peers before being accepted or rejected by a journal
3 articles are archival (retrievable for future reference)
What is an empirical study?
report of Original research.

They have a sequence of:
1. introduction: developmt of the problem
2. method:description of the procedures used to conduct the investigation
3.results: report of the findings and analyses
4 discussion: summary, interpretation and implication of the results.
What is theoretical articles?
Authors draw on existing research literature to advance theory
What is a literature review?
Are critical evaluations of material that has already been published.

In a sense lit reviews are tutorials, in that authors:
1. define and clarify the prob
2summarize previous investigations to inform the reader of the state research
3. identify relations, contradictions, gaps and inconsistencies in the lit
4. suggest the next step or steps in solving the problem.
Ethical and legal principles underlie all scholarly research and writing, these principles are designed to achieve 3 goals, what are they?
1ensure the accuracy of scientific knowledge
2 to protect the rights and welfare of research participants
3.to protect intellectual property rights
Careful preparation of manuscripts for publication is essential, but errors can still occur, what does the author need to do?p
Authors are responsible for making such errors public if the errors are discovered after publication
Authors are expected to retain raw data for a minimum of how long after publication?
5 yrs
Before sharing data among qualified investigators, what needs to happen?
delete any personally identifiable information or code that would make it possible to reestablish a link to an individual participants identity.
Both duplicate publication and piecemeal publication of data constitutes threats to what?
independence of separate research efforts.
What is plagiarism and self plagiarism?
Claiming the words/ideas of another as their own.

If one doesn't present their own previously published work as new scholarship.
Confidentiality in case studies is generally handled by one of two means, what are they?
1. prepare the descriptive case material, present it to the subject of the case report and obtain written consent from the subject. One must be careful not to exploit persons whom one has supervisory, employees, etc.
2. Disguise some aspects of the case material so that neither the subject nor third parties are identifiable.
Disguising of cases is delicate because, why?
It is essential not to change variables that would lead the reader to draw false conclusions.
Conflict of interest may occur if the author has economic/commerical interests, what needs to happen in this scenerio?
The integrity of the field requires disclosure of the possiblilities of such a potentially distorting influence.
Conflict of interest:
Should a colleague/collaborator/ close friend/recent student review ones manuscript?
In general, one should not review the manuscript.
Protecting Intellectual Property Rights:
What does authorship encompass?
Authorship encompasses not only those who do the actual writing but also those who have made substantial scientific contributions to a study. May include formulating the prob/hypothesis, structuring the experimental design, organizing/conducting the statistical analysis, interpreting results or writing a major portion of the paper.

Lesser contributions may be acknowledged in a note
When should authorship be determined?
As early as practicable in a research project, the collaborators should decide on which tasks are necessary for the projects completion, how the work will be divided
What is the order of authorship?
The general rule is that the name of the principal contributor should appear first, with subsequent names in order of decreasing contribution
Are authors protected by a copyright on an unpublished manuscript?
Authors are protected by federal statute against unauthorized use of their published manuscripts. Under the copyright Act of 1976, an unpublished work is copyrighted from the moment it is fixed in tangible form, for example, typed on a page.
What are the 9 pieces on the Ethical compliance checklist?
1.Have you obtained permission for use of unpublished instruments, procedures or data that other researchers might consider theirs?
2. Have you properly cited other published work presented in portions of your manuscript
3. Are you prepared to answer questions abt institutional review of your study
4. Are you prepared to answer editorial questions abt the informed consent and debriefing procedures used
5 If your study involved animal subjects, are you prepared to answer editorial ques abt humane care and use of animal research
6 Have all authors reviewed the manuscript and agreed on responisbility for its content
7 Have you adequately protected the confidentiality of the participants
8 Have all authors agreed to the order of the authorship
9 Have you obtained permission for use of any copyrighted material
Why do we have journal article reporting standards?
Uniform reporting standards make it easier to generalize across fields to more fully understand the implications of individual studies an to allow techniques of meta-analysis to proceed more efficiently
Manuscript Elements:
What is the purpose of a title?
Should summarize the main idea of the manuscript simply.
Should be fully explanatory when standing alone.
A title is also used as a statement of article content for abstracting & reference purposes in databases such as APA, PsycINFO
Manuscript Elements:
What should be avoided in a title?
Should not appear in the title: the words method, results or "a study of or an experimental investigation of"

Avoid using abbrev,

No more than 12 words
Where and how should the title be positioned?
The title should be typed in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered b/w the left and right margins and positioned in the upper half of the page. p23
What does every manuscript include?
The name of the author and the institutional affiliation of the author when the research was conducted.
What is the preferred format for the authors name (byline)?
The preferred form of an author's name is first, middle and last name. This form reduces the liklihood of mistaken identity.
To assist, use the same form for publication throughout your career, do not used initial on one manuscript and the full name on another.
What is the institutional affliation?
identifies the location where the author or authors were when the research was conducted.

Include no more than 2 affliations per author

When an author has no affliation, list the city/state of residence below the authors name.
If there are multiple authors, what order should they appear?
The names of the authors should appear in the order of their contributions.

For names with suffixes (eg, Jr. and III) separate the suffix from the rest of the name with a space instead of a comma
What is in the authors note?
* department affiliation
* provide acknowledgements
* state disclaimers/perceived conflicts of interest
APA recommends that the paper be written in what person?
Third person
"common mistakes, clarkson college"
To write in third person what words should be eliminated (7)?
I, me, my, you, we, our and one from scientific writing. Unless it is absolutely necessary such as an experiment you personally performed.
"common mistakes, cl college"
Sentence structure is important: Sentences should read smoothly, what are three rules?
1. Nothing will kill a paper like an invasion of awkward wording.
2. Think lucid, think clear; think logical; think coherent.
3. Does each sentence flow smoothly off the tongue? Or is it difficult to read outloud.
"common mistakes, cl college"
In order to be of graduate level the following writing principles must be addressed? (6)
1. Ensure your ideas are clear and separate from your research.
2. Get to the point
3. Define your key terms and any potentially confusing terms.
4. Follow the 3 step quotation guidelines
5. Transitions are essential
6. Form a clear, convincing conclusion.
"Grad vs undergrad, CC"
. Ensure your ideas are clear and separate from your research:
Research exists in your writing only.....
....to support your ideas.
Grad vs undergrad, CC
. Ensure your ideas are clear and separate from your research: Graduate level writing assignments should never by what?
...simply summarized research
Grad vs undergrad, CC
Graduate level writing is expected to be an exercise in what? (2)
Critical thinking
personal analysis
Grad vs undergrad, CC
Get to the point: Where should the thesis statement be introduced?
"Do not spend too much space building up to a thesis statement. Rather, state your thesis in the introduction, and use the rest of the essay to support and evidence that statement."
Grad vs undergrad, CC
Define your key terms and any potentially confusing terms: When writing a paper, what do we have to assume the reader has?
...zero knowledge on the subject.
"...and it is your job to make sure he or she walks away from reading your paper with a full understanding of the topic"
"Once you enter upper-level graduate courses that require essays to address a more specific audience, this guideline may be modified"
Grad vs undergrad, CC
What is the three step quotation guideline?
1. state your own ideas in relation to the quote
2. introduce the person who is being quoted and what qualifications make his or her quote credible
3. document the quote in APA style
Grad vs undergrad, CC
Transitions are essential, please read
Without transitions, your reader will feel like they are bouncing around from topic to topic within your essay. Rather, a graduate-level piece of writing should flow smoothly from start to finish. Ideas should be organized consciously to build off of one another organically. A graduate-level writer must use transitions both to connect ideas together and to connect each paragraph to the one that follows it. Thus, transition smoothly within paragraphs and between paragraphs. FYI: There is nothing more boring to read than essays that transition using first, second, next, in conclusion, etc. Instead, use organic transitions. Ask yourself, why did I put this idea before this other idea; once you’ve answered that question, you have your transition. For example, "In order to exemplify the finding, an evidence-based practice that speaks about just such a finding should be analyzed." This lets the reader know that they are about to read an analysis in the next paragraph and why the analysis is both important and the logical next step in the essay.
Form a clear convincing conclusion, please read.
After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that reminds your reader of the main points of your argument. Do not repeat your thesis or other information verbatim from your introduction. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whopper conclusion or try to reinvent the wheel in the final sentence of your conclusion. When you’re done, you’re done. Simplicity is the best strategy for a clear, convincing message.
If the quotation compromises 40 or more/5 lines or more words, what are the rules? (7)
Called a Block quotation because they form their own block of text.
1. Display it in a freestanding block of text
2. Omit the quotation marks
3. Start a block quotation on a new line
4. Indent the block margin once, a half inch from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph)
5. if there are add. paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each an addit. half inch.
6.Double space the entire quotation
7. A period follows the sentence
** Use block quotations sparingly!
7. At the end of the block, cite the quoted source and the pragraph number is needed at the end of the quotation.
8. Introduce most block quotations with words that announce. EX Lipson offers this advice:
8. Never begin a quotation in your running text
p171 APA and using sources
When quoting always provide what?
specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated material
Ex (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p.112)
How to source fewer than 40 words? (3)
1.Enclose the quotation with double quotation marks
2. Can be incorporated into text EX Robbins (2003) suggested that the "therapist...." (p. 541).
3. If the quotation appears at the end of a sentence, close the quoted passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immed after the quotation marks, and end with a period or other. EX ...on the team" (Csikai, 2006, p. 112).
p170-171, APA
Paraphrasing material, please read
When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
p171 APA
Direct quotations of online material without pagination, what are the rules?
page (Many electronic sources do not provide page #s) or paragraph #s if no page number is visible. EX ...cyberspace" (para. 4).

In some cases in which no page or parag #s are visible, headings may be unwieldy to cite in full. Instead use a short title enclosed in quotation marks for the para citation. EX "Studies...change behavior" (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, "Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted," para. 4).
p171-172, APA
Accuracy of Quotations: please read
Direct quotations must be accurate...the quotation must follow the wording, spelling, and interior punc of the original source, even if the source is incorrect. Exceptions in 6.07 and 6.08
p172 APA
Changes from the source requiring no explanation, what are they?
1. first letter of a word in a quotation may be changed to an uppercase or a lowercase letter.
2. The punct. mark at the end of a sentence may be changed to fit the syntax.
3. Single quotation mark may be changed to double quotation marks and vice versa.
Any other changes (italicizing words for emphasis or omitting words) must be explicitly indicated.
P172 APA
Changes from the source requiring explanation: When do you use 3 ellipsis points and when do you use 4?
Use 3 ellipsis points (...) within a sentence to indicate that you have omitted material from the original source.

Use 4 ellipsis points (....) to indicate omission between two sentences.
Do not use ellipsis pts at the beginning or end of any quotations unless to prevent misinterpretation.
p172-173, APA
Inserting material: when do you use brackets?
Use brackets to enclose material such as an addition or explanation inserted in a quotation by some person other than the author. Ex: "They are ..., to what extent [children's] play is a ..." (Henig, 2008, p. 40).
Adding emphasis: If you want to emphasize a word or words, what do you do?
Italicize the word or words. Immediately after the italicized words, insert within brackets the words [emphasis added].
p173 APA
Citations within quotations, what are the rules?
1. Do not omit citations embedded within the original material you are quoting.
2. The works cited need NOT be included in the list of references.
p173, APA
Title: What are the rules for article or chapter title?
Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns;

do not italicize the title or place quotation marks around it.

Finish the element with a period.

EX Mental and nervous diseases in Russia: A historical view.
Title: Periodical title: journals, newsletters, magazines, what are the rules?
1. Italicize the name of the periodical
2. capitilize the first word of each word
EX Social Science Quarterly
Title: Nonperiodical title, books and reports, what are the rules?
1. Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle and proper nouns
2. Italicize the title
3. Finish the element with a period
4. Enclose addit. info given on the publication for its identification and retrieval (edition, report #, volume #) in parentheses immediately after the title
5. Do not italicize the parenthetical info
6. Do not use a period b/w the title and the parth info.
p185-186, APA
Title: Nonroutine info in titles, what are the rules?
1. if nonroutine info is important for identification and retrieval, provide it in brackets immed. after the title and any parenth. info.
2. Capitalize the first letter
Ex [CD], [Brochure]
Sentence structure needs to _____?
vary. Sentence structure that does not vary can be choppy and repetitive to read.
common mistakes, CC
Most academic writing requires what type of voice?
EX: Johnny throws the apple
passive EX : The apple are thrown by Johnny,

Active is clear and concise, vigorous and direct.
Passive is wordy, awkward, and passive
As you write for different assignments, you will inevitably have to use verb tenses and voices other than the present and the active, why should we be conscious of our verb choices?
The key is to be conscious of your verb choices and then ,to make a conscious decision to use one tense or voice over the other. That way, if someone questions your choice of voice, you can defend your use with a logical argument.
past tense is used in evidence based practice to discuss the experiments performed.
common mistakes, CC
Verb tense and voice, be familiar with it.
APA, p 77
Why is it important that you proofread your paper for typos?
When a paper contains typos, the author immediately loses credibility. common mistakes, CC
Research exists in a paper for what?
only to support your paper and position
common mistakes, CC
Three principles to follow so that an informed reader does not think that you are taking credit for words or ideas that are not your own.
1. When you quote the exact words of a source, cite the source (including page #s) and put those words in quotation marks or in block quotation.
2.When you paraphrase a source, cite the sources (including page numbers). Do not use quotation marks, but you must recast it entirely in your own words in a new sentence structure.
3. When you use an idea or method you found in a source, cite the source. If the entire source concerns the idea or method, do not add page numbers.

*If you follow these rules, you will never be suspected of trying to pass off someone else's words and ideas as your own.
Using sources, CC
To use and cite source material correctly, 4 things are recommended, what are they? Using sources
1. Record bibliographical info the first time you touch a source.
2. Record quotations EXACTLY.
3. Mark quotations and paraphrases unambiguously as words of others.
This is crucial, take notes so that wks later you can't possibly think that wds and ideas from a source are your own.
4. Don't paraphrase too closely.
Using sources, CC
Record quotations exactly, what is meant by this?
Copy quotations exactly as they appear in the original, down to every comma and semicolon.
Using sources, CC
Don't paraphrase too closely, what is meant by this?
When you paraphrase a source in your notes, don't just replace wds in the source with synonyms. This is considered plagiarism.
original: The drama is the most social of literary forms, since it stand in so direct a relationship to its audience.
Plagiarized: The theater is a very social genre because it relates so directly with its viewers.
Using sources, CC
What are the rules to creating a title?
1. Titles should allude to the general subject of the paper and the specific focus. EX: Teaching Literature and Healthcare: A Humanist Approach. General topic is teaching lit and heathc and specific focus is a humanist approach.
2. Limiting the title to fewer than 12 words.
3. Avoid using abbrev.
4. Typed in upper and lowercase letters, centered and positioned in the upper half of the paper.
p23 and apa freq asked ques, CC
What are the rules to a running head?
1. Running head is a shorter version of the title.
2. Should be a max of 50 characters, counting letters, punc, and spaces.
3. Should appear flush left in all uppercase letters.
Each reference cited in text must appear in the ______ list and each entry in the reference list mus be cited in the ____.
One work by one author, how is it cited in text?
author and date (do not include suffixes, Jr.)
One work by one author, examples of citing in text.
1. If the name of the author appears as part of the narrative, cite only the year of pub in parentheses
EX Kessler (2003) found samples.
2. Place both the name and the year, separated by a comma, in parentheses.
EX Early onset result in more (Kessler, 2003).
3. If both year and author are given as part of the textual discussion, do not add parenthetical info.
EX In 2003, Kesslers's study...
4. When both the name and the yr are in parentheses, include the yr in subsequent citations within the para.
EX Early onset results in more (Kessler, 2003). Kessler (2003) also found...
One work has multiple authors, what are the rules?
1. When a work has 2 authors, cite both names everytime the ref occurs in text.
EX Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found...
2. When a work has 3, 4 or 5 authors, cite all authors the first time, in subsequent include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
EX Kisangau et al. (2007) found...
3. Omit yr form subsequent citations after first nonparenthetical citation within a para.
4. Include the yr in subsequent citations if first citation within a para is parenthetical.

Extra examples:
As Kurtines and Szapocznik (2003) demonstrated,
... as it has been shown (Loreskoag & Sorbam, 2007)
When an author has six or more authors, what are the rules for citation?
1. Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (not italicized an with a period after al) and the year for the first and subsequent citations.
Kissler et al. (2009)
2. If tow reference with 6 or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distenguidah the tow references, followed by a comma and et al.
Ex Kosslyn, Koenig, Barrett, et al. (1996) and Kosslyn, Koenig, Gabrieli, et al. (1996)
Authors with the same surname, how do you cite in text?
Include the first author's initials in all text citations, even if the yr of public differs.
Ref EX : Light, I. (2006)....
Light, M.A., (2008).....
Text cit. EX: Among studies, we review M.A. Light (2008) and I. Light (2006)
Two or more works within the same parentheses, how is it cited?
1. Order the citations of two or more works within the same parentheses alphabetically
2. Arrange tow or more works by the same author by yr of publication
EX Past research (Gogel, 1990, 2006, in press)
3. If with the same publication date then use suffixs, a,b,c after the yr.
EX Several studies (Derryberry, 2005a, 2008b, in press-a; Rothbart, 2003a, 2003b)
Tips on weaving quotations into your text.
1. You use quotations best when you intergrate then so fully that they seem made for your text.
2. Readers become suspicious when they see bare quot. dropped into your paper with no effort to connect them to your points.
3. Prepare readers for each quot. by stating before your use it how the quot fits into the mesh of your argument.
Using sources, CC
What is a good way to drop in a quotation into the text?
Use of an introductory phrase
EX As Smith says, states, claims, suggests, asserts

The verb indicates your attitude toward the quotatiion so choose carefully
says vs asserts, claims vs suggests, thinks vs want to bel
When weaving quotations into text what are some grammar rules?
1. Put a comma after the intro phrase and capitalize the first letter of the quotation only if it is capitalized in the quot.
EX Williams said, "An acceptable but..."
2. If your introduce the quotation with stated that, claimed that, said that, do not use a comma and do not capitalize
EX He went on to say that "if you introduce..."
3. A more graceful way to use a quotation is to weave it into the structure of our own sentence
EX In The Argument Culture, Tannen treats the male polarity "more like ..."
If you repeat just a few words from a source, you may have to....
treat them as quotations.
For ex: The power of technology goes beyond individual inventions because technology "begets more technology." It is, as Diamond puts it, an "autocatalytic process."

Once you cited those words, you can use them again without quotation marks or citation
Using sources, CC
What are the three principles for using punctuation with quotation marks?
1. If the quotation ends in a period, comma, semicolon, or colon, replace it with the punctuation you need in your own sentence.
A. If the punc is a period or comma put it before a final quotation mark. EX Nixon said, "I am not a crook."
B.If punc is a question mark, colon or semicolon, put it after the final quotation mark. EX Was it Freud who famously asked, "What do women want"?
2. If the quotation ends with a question mark or exclamation pt and your punc is a period or comma, drop your punc and put the question mark before the quotation mark.
EX Freud famously asked, "What do women want?"
3. If you use quotation marks inside a quotation, put your comma or period before both of the marks
EX She said, "I have no idea what is 'Ode to a Nightingale.'"
practice writing references
What is an abstract?
1. summary of the essay
2. should range from 150-250 words
3 Included should be a sentence or two that introduces the topic and its signif
4. a few sentences that explain how the essay will explore and discuss the topic
5. a sentence or two that allude to the essays conclusions
**summary of the essay
apa freq asked ques, CC
What are the grammar and format rules for an abstract?
1 Belongs on the second page
2. It is not indented
3. "Abstract" is centered at the top of the page
4. Begin the abstract paragraph on the next line, it is NOT centered.
apa freq asked ques, CC
Does my title belong above the body of my essay, as well as on the title page?
Yes, your full title, using standard title capitalization should appear both on your title page and above the body of your essay (usually the top of the third page)
see p 41 apa book for an EX
apa freq asked ques, CC
How often should I quote a source? How often should I paraphrase?
APA is not terribly specific about this. However, the consensus among faculty seem to be to paraphrase rather than use quotations whenever possible - only using quotes to say something better than you could ever say it.
Always remember, that your voice should remain the primary voice in the essay, don't let your sources talk for you.
apa freq asked ques, CC
If I'm listing 3 items (such as blue, purple, and red), should I include a comma before the and?
Yes, absolutely! Section 4.03 APA manual
Ex the height, weight, or depth p88

to separate 2 independant clauses joined by a conjunction
EX Cedar shavings covered the floor, and paper was avail for shredding.
Should the words, Abstract, and, References, at the to of their pages be in bold print?
No, the words Abstract and References are not in bold, not underlined, and not in italics. Simply center them at the top of their respective pages.
APA freq asked quest, CC
Should there be any space between my header and the words Abstract and References?
No, the words Abstract and References belong on the top line of the page and are followed on the next line by the abstract paragraph and first reference citation.

** Remember that the entire exxay is just double spaced, so the next line is the next double-spaced line. Figure 2.1 APA
apa freq asked ques, CC
How often should I include the yrs of publication of my sources?
The general rule about including a source's yr of publication in an essay is once per source per paragraph and in every parenthetical citation. (section 6.11)
apa freq asked quest, CC
What happens when there is more than one author of a source?
Within the body of the essay, follow these rules:
1. For 1 or 2 authors, list all authors last names every time
2. For 3, 4, 5 authors, list all authors last names the first time and the first authors last name followed by et al. every subsequent time.
3. For 6 or more authors, list the first authors last name followed by et al. every time, including the first time.
apa freq asked quest, CC
Titles in-text and on the Reference list, see the differences.
Notice that the punctuation and capitalization of some titles are different in the body of an essay than they are on the reference list.
Book title: PASTE
In-text: The Place of Grammar in Writing Instruction
How do I cite a quotation if there are no page numbers?
1. Use a heading in quotation marks, followed by a paragraph number.
EX "Jon Doe said" (2010, "Conversations," para. 2).
Section 6.05
apa freq asked quest, cc